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J^arbarli College ILifaratg 



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RECENTLY PUBLISHED 



^' ' THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 



PUBLICATIONS OF 
SOCIE" 
No. 83 

GENOESE WORLD MAP 1457 



BY 

EDWARD LUTHER STEVENSON. PH.D. 

THIS MAP IS ONE TO WHICH PECULIAR INTEREST ATTACHES BY REASON OF ITS AGE 

AND THE CHARACTER AND FULLNESS OF ITS RECORDS. IT BELONGS TO A PERIOD OF 

TRANSITION, EXHIBITING AN EFFORT TO BRING INTO HARMONY THE ANCIENT AND THE 

MEDIEVAL GEOGRAPHICAL IDEAS WITH THOSE OF THE YEARS IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING 

i THE GREAT ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. IT ILLUSTRATES STRIKINGLY 

\ THE REMARKABLE EXPANSION OF GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE DURING THE FIFTEENTH 

CENTURY.INCLUDINGTHEFIELDOFPORTUGUESEENTERPRISEIN AFRICA UNDER PRINCE 

HENRY'S LEADERSHIP. AS WELL AS THE ISLANDS. THE COAST AND THE INLAND REGIONS 

OF THE FAR EAST. THE FACSIMILE IS ONE OF SUPERIOR EXCELLENCE. BEING REPRO- 

4.j DUCED IN COLORS AND SIZE OF THE ORIGINAL. CRITICAL TEXT OF 77 PAGES. ILLUS- 



TRATED WITH REPRODUCTIONS OF FIVE EARLY MAPS. PRICE $10.00 NET. 



THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

156TH STREET. WEST OF BROADWAY 
NEW YORK CITY 



« 



f 



PUBLICATIONS OF 
THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 



No. 83 



"Africa- ' "Scrape" rend 



GENOESE WORLD MAP 

1457 
FACSIMILE 

AND CRITICAL TEXT INCORPORATING IN FREE TRANSLATION 

THE STUDIES OF PROFESSOR THEOBALD FISCHER 

REVISED WITH THE ADDITION OF 

COPIOUS NOTES 

BY 

EDWARD LUTHER STEVENSON, PH.D. 



ISSUED UNDER THE JOI 

THE AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

AND 

THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 




NEW YORK 
1912 



Ctoo Qi.S'l'l 3,3 



'^ 



eSS* 



OCT 22 1912 



Nhc^. :: m ^VS.S1.•^ 




Copyright, 1912, by 

The Hispanic Society 

OF America 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

GENOESE WORLD MAP OF 1457 1 

EUROPE 11 

ASIA 18 

AFRICA 54 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

"^Genoese World Map, 1457. From hand-colored parchment 

copy in the collection of the author Frontispiece 

FACING PAGB 

Map of Fra Mauro, 1459. From Santarem's atlas 4 

Pizigani Map, 1367. From Jomard's atlas 30 

Catalan Map, 1375. From Choix de documents g^ographiques con- 
serves a la Bibliotheque Nationale de Paris 44 

Map of Leardo, 1452. From original belonging to American 

Geographical Society 54 



GENOESE WORLD MAP OF 1457 



GENOESE WORLD MAP OF 1457 

TO this map, which appears to be one of Grenoese 
origin, a peculiar interest attaches by reason of its 
age and the character and fullness of its records. 
The author is unknown. Its date of execution, which is in- 
scribed on the left, has been interpreted by some students 
as 1417, by others as 1447, but a careful examination of the 
map five years since enabled the author of this paper to 
confirm the reading of Professor Uzielli, who found it to 
be 1457.' 

The map belongs to a period of transition. Ptolemy 
had been recovered and was becoming anew a teacher of 
geography to the peoples of Europe.^ Prince Henry's 
explorers were now feeling their way down the coast of 
Africa, and through the word of their discoveries were 



iThe following authorities accept 
1417 as the correct date of the map: 
Zurla: Di Marco Polo, II, p. 397; 
Baldelli Boni: II MUioM di Marco 
Polo, I, p. clxiv; Hommaire de Hell 
(in Bulletin de la Soci^t6 de G^- 
graphie de Paris, I, p. 397). Profes- 
sor Fischer gives it as his opinion 
that 1447 is the correct reading. It 
can hardly be doubted that the date 
as recorded is 1457, the figure 5 being 
written thus, V, according to the prac- 
tice of the time. Hie legend in 
which the date appears is given on 
page 10. 



2 The influence of Ptolemy's Oeog- 
raphy on what we may caU modem 
exploration and discovery began in 
the early fifteenth century with its 
translation from the Greek into the 
Latin. The work of translating un- 
dertaken by Emanuel Chrysoloras, 
who died in 1415, was completed by 
Jacobus Angelus. The oldest known 
copy of this Angelus translation, 
dated 1497, may be found in the 
Nancy Library. It is on this trans- 
lation that most of the fifteenth-cen- 
tury editions of Ptolemy's work are 
based. 



contributing a fresh interest to those eager to learn of 
regions that were remote.^ Central and eastern Asia, the 
islands of the Indian Seas and of the neighboring eastern 
waters, while yet the home of myths and marvels, were 
rapidly becoming better known to the West through the 
reports of traders and travelers. Our map-maker surpasses 
his contemporaries, as Professor Fischer has noted, in ex- 
hibiting an effort to bring into harmony the ancient and the 
medieval geographical ideas with those of his own day. 
For this, also, the map is one of striking importance. It is 
now the property of the Italian Government, and is to be 
found in the^BibUoteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, 
being catalogued Sezione Pcdatina No. 1 Plamsfero 
Mediceo. 

The map is not well preserved, a fact due in part to care- 
less handling, in part to its peculiar mounting which evi- 
dently is very old. To prevent the crinkling of the 
parchment, as would appear, it has been mounted on four 
boards of suitable width and of about half an inch in thick- 
ness, which boards have been adjusted to fold. In certain 
parts the colors are yet brilliant, though softened with age ; 
in other parts they have almost disappeared, and nothing 
has contributed more to this destruction than the rubbing 
of part on part. Most of the names can be read with ease ; 
some, however, with the greatest diflSculty ; while a few are 
no longer legible. 

The existence of the map has long been known, yet its 
importance has not been sufficiently emphasized. No bet- 
ter description of it has appeared in print than that given 



1 Prince Henry's interest in the At- when Gil Ennes made a successful 

lantic coast region of Africa dated expedition southward. By 1455 dis- 

from 1415; his explorations were ac- coveries had been made somewhat be- 

tively prosecuted as early as 1434, yond Cape Verde. 



by Professor Theobald Fischer in his "Sammhing mittel- 
alterlicher Welt- und Seekarten italienisehen Urspmngs/'^ 
Wuttke in 1870^ and Lelewel in 1857* published rather 
useless sketches of the map. The reproduction in the On- 
gania collection, to accompany which Professor Fischer 
prepared a text, is the best reproduction hitherto at- 
tempted, but this is considerably reduced in size and is 
scarcely legible, the art of photographing manuscripts in 
which color enters so largely being then in its infancy.* 

The present reproduction, following the announced pur- 
pose in the issue of this series, is faithful to the original in 
every detail.*^ Through the kindly offices of Professor 
Gustavo Uzielli, the Italian Government gave courteous 
consent to have the map photographed, and at the Isti- 



1 Theobald Fischer: Sammhmg mUr- 
telalUrlieher Welt- und Seekarten 
italienisehen Ursprungs und au» itali- 
enisehen Bibliotheken und Archiven, 
Venedig, 1886. A full expression of 
appreciation is here recorded of the 
courtesy extended by Frau Geheim- 
rath Fischer for the privilege of us- 
ing so much of her recently deceased 
husband's book as mig^t be desired. 
His investigations form the basis of 
this study, and the greater part of the 
descriptive matter in his Chapter vn 
here appears in free translation, 
though somewhat altered in the order 
of presentation. Certain paragraphs 
have been expanded and revised, the 
legends have been reread and the re- 
vision carefully compared with the 
original through the courtesy of Dr. 
Salomone Morpurgo, Bibliotecario- 
capo of the Biblioteca Nazionale Cen- 
trale, Florence, and extensive notes 
have been added. Instances in which 
a difference of opinion in interpreta- 
tion is entertained have been duly in- 
dicated. It is a pleasure to honor the 
memory of Professor Fischer, an in- 



spiring teacher and an eminent inves- 
tigator in the field of historical geog- 
raphy. 

2 In VI and VII Jahreshericht des 
Vereins fUr Erdkunde zu Dresden, 
1870. 

3 Lelewel: Epilogue d la Oiographie 
du Mayen-dge, Bruxelles, 1857, pp. 
167-184. Plate VI contains a small 
reproduction of the map. 

^Raccolta di Mappamondi e Carte 
Nautiche del IS al 16 Secolo, No. Z. 
Venezia Ferd. Ongania, 1881. 

B In 1906 the editor of this series of 
maps issued in facsimile an atlas con- 
taining twelve numbers under the 
title. Maps illustrating Early Dis^ 
covery and Exploration in America, 
of the period from 1509 to 1530. In 
1907, under the auspices of The His- 
panic Society of America and of The 
American Geographical Society, the 
issue of a new series was begun with 
the Map of the World by Jodooua 
Hondius, 1611, and in 1908 there fol- 
lowed the second number, the Marine 
World Chart of Nieold de Canerio 
Januensis, 160f6 (oirca). 



s 



tuto Geografico MiUtari this part of the work of repro- 
duction was done by its expert photographer.^ 

Although drawn before the day of Columbus, its appear- 
ance in this series of maps illustrating early discovery and 
exploration in the New World may be justified on the 
ground that it makes record of explorations by land and by 
sea which lead us directly into the day of New World dis- 
coveries. 

It is a much less pretentious map than that drawn by 
Fra Mauro,^ but it is of almost equal date and not second 
to it in scientific importance. There is evidence that its 
author was better informed on certain geographical mat- 
ters than was the monk of Murano, as, for example, con- 
cerning certain European, African, and Indian contour 
features, and that the pecuUar form he chose for his map 
had less influence in leading him to distort what could then 
be caQed remote regions than had the circular form which 
Fra Mauro chose. 

In the Catalan map of about 1450 — remarkable map 
that it is and all too little known— there is perhaps less than 
in oiu* map exhibiting the struggle of the ancient, the me- 
dieval and the modem geographical ideas, so pronounced 
in those years which were the years of transition, as I have 
stated.' 

Bianco's maps reach out farther into the Atlantic than 



iThe photographic negatives were 
made in 1905. 

* The Fra Mauro map, now pre- 
served in the Grand Ducal Palace of 
Venice, was reproduced by Santarem 
in his great atlas. See Zurla: II 
Mappa-monde di Fra Mauro, Vene- 
zia, 1806. It appeared in photo- 
graphic reproduction, greatly re- 
duced in size and not easily legible, 
in the Ongania coUection, No. XV. 



See reproduction facing p. 4. 

8 See Kretschmer: Die Katalanische 
Weltkarte der Biblioteea Estense zu 
Modena (in Zeitschrift fiir Oeschichte 
der Erdhunde zu Berlin, 1897, S. 65- 
111, 191-218), with a reproduction in 
colors of the chart, two thirds of the 
original size. In this monograph we 
have a very excellent critical study of 
a most important document. 



does our Gtenoese cartographer's map, and include islands 
apparently beyond the horizon of those explorers who were 
inclined to tell only a plain, unimaginative tale of their 
discoveries, and Bianco's maps are likewise less truthful in 
their record concerning the regions of the west African 
coast and of the far East.^ 

Presenting certain features which bear striking resem- 
blance to the Dulcert map of 1389,^ and to the Catalan 
map of 1875,^ it gives, very naturally, later record. 

The map is elliptical in shape, having a major axis meas- 
uring 81 cm. and a minor axis measuring 42 cm.^ It there- 
fore indicates the longitude of the habitable world as about 
twice that of the latitude. It is, however, but mere con- 
jecture to assert that our draughtsman had a Marinus map 
before him while working out his sketch, though it con- 
forms to the geographical notion of that ancient cartog- 
rapher.^ 

An elliptical shape is not altogether common to the maps 
of the period, nor to those of the earlier centuries, which 



1 Bianco's map of 1448 belongs to 
the Biblioteca Ambro»iana of Milan. 
It appears in the Ongania collection as 
No. XI. Its most interesting feature 
is the representation of land to the 
west of Africa, "1500 miles distant," 
according to the accepted interpreta- 
tion of a legend near it. See Yule- 
Oldham: A Pre-Columbian Discovery 
of America, (In The Royal Geo- 
graphical Journal, 1895, pp. 991-333.) 

2 Original in the Biblioth^ue Na- 
tionale, Paris, and reproduced and 
described by Hamy: La Mappemonde 
d'Angelino Dulcert, Paris, 1903. 

8 Original in Biblloth^ue Natio- 
nale, Paris. The best reproduction of 
this chart may be found in Choix de 
document* geogr, conserv, d la Bib- 
liothique NationaU de Paris, 1883. 



Cordier: L'ExMme-Orient dans 
VatUts Catalan de Charles V, 1895, 
presents an interesting study of its 
eastern Asiatic section. 

*The size is inaccurately given by 
Fischer as 0.750 m. long by 0.370 m. 
broad. 

6 Fischer quotes here from Masudi 
the following: "I have seen these 
[seven] climates illuminated in divers 
colors in many books, but the best I 
have seen of this character is in the 
treatise on geography by Marinus." As 
this was written in the tenth century, 
it seems to indicate that maps by 
Marinus were then known. The ref- 
erence may be, however, to the work 
of Ptolemy. According to Marinus, 
the land area of the earth extends 
through 225 degrees of longitude. 



have survived time's destruction. The St. Sever map of 
the Beatus type is a striking example of the oblong shape»^ 
as is that of Henry of Mainz, though this draughtsman 
strangely gives to his map the greater length from north 
to south.^ In one of the earliest references to map con- 
struction which we possess, Herodotus criticizes the maps 
of his day, which were "circular as though turned by a 
lathe," but he does not tell us how he thinks maps should 
be constructed.^ A form common for world maps of the 
later middle ages was that approaching the circular.* An 
example of this circular form we have in the Bianco map 
of 1436,^ as also in the anonymous Catalan map-maker's 
work of circa 1450. Fra Maiu"o's great world map of 1459 
is circular, as are the maps of Leardo.® It is, however, 
worthy of note that, with scarcely an exception, the so- 
called circular maps have a diameter from east to west 
slightly longer than that from north to south. 

On the right, beyond the artistic border which entirely 
surroimds the map, and which is well preserved, a scale of 
miles is twice given with the legend, "pro c. miliaribs."'' 



1 The orginal is in the Biblioth^ue 
Nationaley Paris. A description and 
a reproduction in colors may be found 
in Miller: Die dltesten Weltkarten, I 
Heft 

2 Original in Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge, England. A descrip- 
tion and a reproduction may be found 
in Miller, op. dt.. Ill Heft. 

« Herodotus: History, IV, 36. 

« Isaiah's statement, "It is He that 
sitteth upon the circle of the earth," 
doubtless exerted much influence on 
certain medieval map-makers in de- 
termining the form of their world 
maps. 

B Original in the Mardana Library 
of Venice. See Ongania collection. 
No. I, for a reproduction. 



«The American Geographical Soci- 
ety possesses a fine map, by Leardo, 
of 1459. See reproduction facing p. 54.. 

7 Fischer has recorded the scale of 
the map as 1:30,000,000, and the en- 
tire world represented as occupying 
900 degrees of longitude. The repre- 
sentation of a scale of miles is a fea- 
ture of most portolan charts. See 
E. Steger: Untersuchungen iiber itali- 
enischen Seekarten de» MittelalUr 
auf Orund der kartometriachen Me- 
thods, 1896; also Konrad Kretsch- 
mer: Die itali§nischen Portolane dee 
Mittelaltere, 1909, pp. 50-60, with bib- 
liographical references. Nordenskiold 
also gives extensive consideration to 
the question of scale and measure- 
ment in his PeriphM, 



On the upper left a trefoil ornament is drawn, over which 
is a scroll with a representation of the Genoese cross, and 
on the lower left is a similar ornament with a scroll on 
which is sketched what appears to be a conventionalized 
coat of arms or a representation of the Genoese city wall 
with the mountains in the background. 

The map presents some of the features which are espe- 
cially pronounced in the portolan charts.^ Lines have been 
drawn blocking out the map in unequal sections, and com- 
pass lines are numerous with now sixteen, now less radiating 
from crossing points. While most of the towns indicated 
by name are coast towns, though less niunerous than on 
portolan charts and very nearly all in red, many names also 
appear in the interior regions as in Europe, northern Africa 
and western Asia. As was yet the fashion,-a fashion 
strikingly pronounced in the middle ages and perhaps in 
Roman days,-the map is UberaUy ornamented with archi- 
tectural subjects, with crowned kings, with marvelous ani- 
mals of land and sea. Jerusalem is no longer the center of 
the world as in the Hereford^ or the Ebstorf map,^ nor 
does the major axis pass through the Mediterranean. 

A critical study of the map forces the conclusion that its 
author was remarkably well informed on geographical 
matters. He records numerous geographical notions of 



^See E. L. Stevenson, Portolan 
CharU, theW Origin and Characteri*^ 
tiet, wth a Descriptive List of those 
belonging to The Hispanic Society of 
America, Fifteen of these charts 
have been here reproduced. A brief 
bibliography is given, pp. 99S1. 

2 Original in the Hereford Ca- 
thedral, England. An excellent re- 
production may be found in Santa- 
rem. See also, for a reproduction 
and a critical study of the map. 



Miller: Die dltesten Weltkarten, IV 
Heft. Bevan and Phillot: The Here- 
ford Map, an Essay in Mediaeval Car- 
tography, Hereford, 1874. 

> Original in Museum des Vereins 
fiir Niedersachsen, Hanover. Repro- 
duced in colors, with critical text by 
Miller: Die dltesten WeltkaHen, V 
Heft. In 1891 an excellent repro- 
duction was issued by Ernest Som- 
merbrodt. 



the middle ages,^ having at the same time an acquaintance 
with the works of many who had made contributions to 
geographical science in the earlier centuries. He appears 
to have known his Pliny, whom he cites in his legends.^ 
None, perhaps, of the early writers had influenced him 
more than had Ptolemy, yet we find him, for instance, dis- 
carding the Ptolemaic idea of an enclosed Indian Sea.^ 
Wherein he follows that geographical master it is not 
slavishly. His Caspian Sea is Ptolemaic, but he shows 
some acquaintance with the European northlands, which 
lands to the Greek geographer were unknown.* He ex- 
hibits an advanced knowledge of India, of east and of west 
Africa, and yet he quotes Ptolemy as his teacher in support 
of certain of his records as to those regions, as will appear 
later. 

In what may be taken to be a representation of the Gulf 
of Guinea, for example, appears the legend "Preter Pto- 
lemei tradicionem est hie guflFus sed pomponius eimi tradit 
cum ejus insula." His "Ethiopia Egipti" is the Ptolemaic 
"Aethiopia infra Aegyptimi," and he follows the ancient 
Greek geographer in his representation of the Mountains 
of the Moon and the lake sources of the Nile. His general 
outline of the Red Sea and of the Gulf of Aden is Ptole- 
maic, as is his Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, Hither and Fur- 
ther India, and his division of Scythia into near and remote 
Scythia, though his coast of the Mediterranean and of the 

1 As the reference to Saint Thomas in his world map that between south- 
in India, to Alexander in various em Africa and eastern Asia there is 
parts of central Asia, to the lost a land connection. 

tribes of Israel, and to Gog and Ma- ^ Maps of the Northland, clearly based 

gog. upon actual knowledge, begin to make 

2 See, for example, the legend in their appearance in the latter part of 
the Indian Ocean taken from Pliny: the fourteenth and in the early fif- 
Natural History, Bk. IX. teenth century. See Fischer: The Dis- 

« It was Ptolemy's idea as set forth coveries of the Northmen, 

8 



Black Sea as well as that of the ocean from Cape Boj ador 
to the British Islands and Holland is quite in accord with 
the portolan charts. As from a study of the maps of 
Bianco, so from a study of this map it appears evident that 
Ptolemy was measurably well known in Italy in the first 
half of the fifteenth century.^ 

Our Genoese map-maker, however, not only shows him- 
self indebted to the ancient and early medieval geographers 
for information, but he also shows himself indebted to trav- 
elers such as Marco Polo,^ and in particular to Nicolo di 
Conti, who returned to Italy in 1444 after an absence of 
twenty-five years, in which time he journeyed through 
Asia, Africa, and the Indian Seas.^ It would be difficult 
to trace every detail of the map to its source. Such a map- 
maker as was this Genoese could not be classed with the 
cloister cartographers of the middle ages. We are safe in 



1 See note 2, p. 1. 

2 The best English edition of Marco 
Polo's account of his travels is that 
by Sir Henry Yule, bearing title, The 
Book of Sir Marco Polo the Venetian 
concerning the Kingdoms and Mar- 
vels of the East, revised throughout 
by Henry Cordier, 1903, 2 vols. This 
is a work unsurpassed in careful and 
searching scholarship. Marco Polo's 
story is the most important contribu- 
tion to medieval geography. The 
period included in the narrative is 
from 1360 to 1995. 

8 Nicol6 di Conti was a Venetian 
of noble family. After a residence of 
some years as a merchant in Damas- 
cus, he undertook an expedition to 
the far East. In order to save his 
life, on his return journey he was 
compelled to renounce the Christian 
religion and to accept the Mohamme- 
dan faith. On reaching Venice, he 
besought absolution from Pope Eu- 
genius IV for his apostasy, which ab- 



solution was granted on condition 
that he should relate the story of his 
travels to Poggio Bracciolini, papal 
secretary, by whom it was written 
down in Latin. His story as told may 
have been somewhat altered by 
Poggio for literary effect. Ramusio, 
not being able to find Poggio's Latin 
account, printed in 1556, in the first 
volume of his Navigationi et Viaggi, 
an Italian version of Conti's narra- 
tive, translated from the Portuguese. 
In 1793 Abb^ Oliva published the 
original Latin account in an edition 
of Poggio's Historia de Varietate 
Fortuncp, and Kunstmann in 1863 
published the Latin text in his KennP- 
nis Indiens im 16 Jahrhundert. In 
1857, R. H. Major edited for the 
Hakluyt Society an English version 
from which the citations appearing 
in this monograph are taken. This 
work is referred to hereafter under 
the abbreviation Hk. 8. 



asserting that he made use of what he regarded as the most 
rational and reliable somx:es available in his day. 

In a legend on the extreme left the author thus alludes 
to his map: "Hec est vera cosmographorum cum marino 
accordata tradicio, quonmdam frivolis narrationibus re- 
jectis 1457": "This is the true tradition of cosmographers 
in accord with Marinus, [marine charts?] their unreliable 
records being excluded, 1457."^ 



1 Lelewel gives the following read- 
ing for this legend I "Hec est vera 
cosmogra^omin cnm marino acor- 
data [mimdi, or terraeP) degcilptio 
qnotidie frivolis narratlonibuB In 
jecUs [appoeita, or correcta?] 1*47." 
The reading here accepted fs that 
of Professor Fischer with the ex- 
ertion that "tradido" is substituted 
for •temr and "liSV for "IMT." It 
is, however, doubtful whether the word 
"marino" should be translated "Mari- 
nas." Lelewel has suggested that the 
reference here is to the marine charts 
or to seamen. This appears to me to 
be an acceptable reading. Portolan 



charts bdng at tbis time In sncb gen- 
eral use by seamen, the cosmographer 
apparently refers to his diart as drawn 
according to the knowledge of the sea- 
men of his day. In the translation of 
the several legends to be found on the 
map, as these translations appear In 
Uie following pages, it is here dis- 
tinctly stated that in some eases the 
reading Is conjectural. In not a few 
of these legends there are words do 
longer legible: not infrequent^ there 
is evidence that the map-maker was 
not a skilled Latinlst, and it is quite 
impossible to translate his i 
literally. 



EUROPE 

TURNING first to Europe for a consideration of the 
details of the map, it will be noted that the contour 
of this continent is drawn with a nearer approach 
to accuracy than is true of the other continents, our car- 
tographer's greatest errors appearing in the regions which 
were beyond those recorded by Ptolemy and the portolan 
chartmakers/ By reason of the limited space, the geo- 
graphical details inserted in this section of the map are not 
numerous; indeed, of no part of the map can it be said 
that the author has crowded it with details.^ 

The only mountains indicated in Europe are the Alps, 
which are made to sweep in a somewhat irregular curve 
aroimd the north of Italy and the head of the Adriatic. 
The Rhone, the Rhine, the Po and the Danube— the latter 
with an extensive delta — have been inscribed in a manner 
which leaves no doubt as to their identity, while into the 
Black Sea, which with the Sea of Azov is well drawn, flow 
the rivers Don and Dnieper, and into the Caspian Sea flows 
the Volga, though no names are aflixed. 

1 Hie representation of the Scandi- to inscribe that information which 

navian region gives evidence of an would be useful rather than merely 

acquaintance with such cartographi- omamentaL His map, however, as 

cal records as those of Claudius before stated, is one of a transition 

Clavus. See Fischer: The Diicoveries period, retaining many of the illustra- 

of the Northmen, tive features of earlier medieval maps. 



3 The author has chosen in the main 



11 



In the northern part of Europe we find sketched a polar 
bear "Forma ursorum alborum," and an ermme or sable, 
animals whose valuable pelts were obtained by the Hansa 
of Novgorod and sold by them in Bruges to the Italians/ 
Here we also find the representation of a ruler, "Lordo 
Rex," with genuine Mongol features, the chief of the 
Gtolden Horde.^ Between the Dniester, at that time the 
western boundary of the Mongol empire, and the Dnieper 
is the city "Lordo," a name which often appears in refer- 
ences to treaty relations established between the Mongols 



1 In referring to the Tartars of the 
far North, Marco Polo states that 
'^ou find in tfieir country immense 
bears entirely white, and more than 
twenty palms in length" (Yule: Marco 
Polo, VoL II, p. 479), and concerning 
the ''Land of Darkness*' he says that 
its ''people have vast quantities of 
valuable peltries. Thus they have 
those costly sables of which I spoke, 
and they have the Ermine, the Arcu- 
lin, the Vair, the Black Fox, and 
many other valuable furs. They are 
all hunters by trade, and amass amass- 
ing quantities of those furs. And the 
people who are on their borders, where 
the light is, purchase all those furs 
from them; for the people of the Land 
of Darkness carry the furs to the 
light country for sale, and the mer- 
chants who purchase these make great 
gain thereby, I assure you." Yule: 
Marco Polo, Vol. II, p. 484. 

Ibn Batuta writes concerning this 
traffic in furs as follows: "When the 
travelers have accomplished a journey 
of 40 days across this desert, they 
encamp near the Land of Darkness. 
Each of them leaves there the mer- 
chandise which he has brought with 
him, then all return to their quarters, 
and on the following day come back 
to examine their goods. They find 
laid beside them the skins of the 



Sable, the Vair and the Ermine. If 
the owner of the goods is satisfied 
with what has been placed beside his 
parcel, he takes it, if not he leaves it 
there. The inhabitant of the Land 
of Darkness may increase the objects 
he has left [on another visit], but, as 
often happens, he may take them 
all away, and leave that of the foreign 
trader untouched. In this manner 
they conduct their trade. The people 
who go thither never know whether 
those with whom they buy and sell 
are goblins or human beings, for they 
never see any one." See Voyages 
d'lhn Batoutah, French translation 
by C. Defrdmery et le Dr. B. R. San- 
guinetti. Tome II, p. 401. 

2 The "Golden Horde" is a term 
applied to the empire of the Kip- 
chak, founded on the conquest of 
Batu Khan, leader of the Tartar in- 
vasion of Europe, beginning about 
1337. This empire in time embraced 
a large part of modem Russia and 
of Siberia about as far to the east- 
ward as the Irtish River. Batu estab- 
lished himself on the lower Volga at 
Sara (Sarai), which he made his cap- 
ital. Because of the splendor of his 
camp it was called "Sir Orda," or 
Golden Camp. Under Ivan III the 
rule of the Mongols was overthrown 
in Russia. 



12 



and the people of the Occident. It was the military camp 
of the nomads of Asia. Between the Dnieper and the Don 
the author has made a suggestive reference to the custom 
of that migratory folk of transporting their houses about 
with them on wagons drawn by oxen, a custom also attrib- 
uted to the early Teutons and the Huns.^ Such a wagon 
with driver and oxen, rather crudely sketched, is repre- 
sented moving eastward, near which appears the legend, 
"Ubi lordo errat." A good picture of a Mongol appears on 
the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, and also one west of 
the Black Sea, being drawn about the time of the destruc- 
tion of their rule. The ItaUans were then in close rela- 
tions with the Golden Horde from Moncastro, Ka£Pa, 
Sudak, and Tana as centers, and were, therefore, in a po- 
sition to know intimately their customs and manner of 
life. We are in possession of numerous descriptions of 



1 In writing concerning the Huns 
in the latter part of the fourth cen- 
tury, Ammianus Marcellinus, Book 
XXXI, Chapter n, says: "They have 
no settled abode, but are homeless and 
lawless, perpetually wandering with 
their wagons, which they make their 
homes; in fact, they seem to be peo- 
ple always in flight." Similar state- 
ments are to be found relative to the 
early Teutons. 

^'Some of these tabernacles may 
quickely be taken asunder, and set to- 
gether again, and are carried vpon 
beastes backes. Other some cannot be 
taken in sunder, but are stowed vpon 
cartes. And whithersoeuer they goe, 
be it either to warre, or to any other 
place, they transport their taber- 
nacles." Carpini in Hakluyt Society 
Publications, 1903, edited by Beazley» 
p. 109. 

''The sayd houses they make so 
large that they containe tiiirtie foote 
in breadth. For measuring once the 



breadth betweene the wheeleruts of 
one of their cartes, I found it to be 
20 feete ouer: and when the house 
was vpon the carte, it stretched ouer 
the wheeles on each side five feete at 
least. I told 22 oxen in one teame, 
drawing an house vpon a carte eleuen 
in one order according to the breadth 
of the carte, and eleuen more before 
them; the axletree of the carte was of 
an huge bigness like vnto the mast 
of a ship. And a fellow stood in the 
doore of the house vpon the forestall 
of the carte driuing forth the oxen." 
Rubruquis in Hakluyt Society Publi- 
cations, 1903, edited by Beazley, p. 
188. 

See also JEadiylus: Prometheus 
Vinfitus, 709-710; Strabo, VII, 3-9. 
There is an interesting reference to 
the same subject in Herodotus, Book 
IV, Chapter xlvi. Yule: Marco Polo, 
Vol. I, p. 265, gives a picture of such 
a Tartar outfit, apparentiy taken from 
the description of Rubruquis. 



13 



the Tartars in Europe at the time in which our map was 
constructed/ 

Many regional names appear and many cities are made 
prominent in each of the continents through the sketch of a 
building, which building sometimes is a castle, sometimes 
is a church or cathedral, sometimes is a monastery. Re- 
gional names conspicuous in western Europe are "Por- 
tugal," "Hispania," "Arago," "Catalonia." Here we also 
find "Lisbona," "Sibilla," "Taragona," "Barcelona," 
"Saragosa," and a few other names which are illegible. 

England, Scotland, and Ireland are represented as on 
the portolan charts of the period, over each of which flies a 
pennant. To the south of Ireland, in the ocean, we find 
the foDowing legend: "De Ybemia duo narrantur unum 
quod in ea est abissus dictujs putens sancti patritij per 
quem ad partes inferoram descendit[ur?] multaque 
miranda in eo vident sepius et narant incole. Aliud est 
quod eorum arbores quedam f ructus f erant qui intra mar- 
cescendo vermen generant qui inde crescendo pilosus vel 
plumatus tandem alatus effectus tanguam avis evolat": 
"Concerning Ireland two [stories] are told. One of Hiese 
[asserts] that there is an abyss called the well of St. Pat- 
rick through which one descends into the lower regions. In 
this [well] the inhabitants often see many wonderful 
things and tell about them. The other [story relates] that 
certain of their trees bear fruit which, decaying within, 

1 The account of the Franciscan hi the account of John of Monte Cor- 

John de Piano Carpini, who started vigno; in the records of the Domini- 

in 1345 to visit the camp of the Mon- can pilgrim Ricolo of Monte Croce, 

gols, is very interesting and instruc- and of the Spanish nobleman and 

tive, as is also that of William de diplomat, Ruy Gronzales de Clavijo. 

Rubruquis,' who in 1359 was sent to In his Davm of Modem Geography, 

the Mongol country by King Louis Vol. Ill, Mr. Beazley has given an 

IX. Interesting references may be excellent smnmary of the services of 

found in the account of the mission- the several travelers here referred to, 

ary journeys of Andrew de Longu- with references, 
meau, also sent by King Louis IX; 

14 



produces a worm which, as it subsequently develops, be- 
comes hairy and feathered, and, provided with wings, flies 
like a bird." 

In France appear the names "Gascona," "Lengadoc," 
"Normania," "Baiona," "Bordeaux," "Tolosa," "Nar- 
bona," "Montpelher," "Arguesmortes," "Avenio," "Mas- 
siUia," "Lion," "Dijon," "Bourges," "Renes," and a few 
undecipherable names. 

In Italy we find "Italia," "Masca," "Calabria," "Si- 
cilia," "Sardinia," "Corsica," "Niza," and "Venezia," 
which last our author has made especiaUy prominent, while 
G^noa itself has been omitted altogether. The names of 
nine cities in addition are given in northern Italy: "Flo- 
rentia," "Ravenna," "Ancerra," "Borletta," "Bor[i]," 
"Rana," "Galta," and "NapoU," with one iUegible. 

In central and eastern Europe we find "Bavaria," 
"Boemia," "Prutenia," "Bruges" (Brugge), "Dancic," 
"Famosura" (Frankenburg?), "Poana," "Praja," "Ratis- 
bon," "Inbrunch," "Vienna," "Pruna," "Potavia," "Un- 
garia" with "Juanin" (Raab), "Biu*garia," "Polonia," 
Carcovia," "Rossia," and near this last the classic names 
Sormatia prima" and "S. secunda," the first for the land 
between the Dnieper and the Don, the second for the region 
east of the Volga. On the lower Volga lies the city "Sara" 
and also "Saratellis." Sara was the capital of the Kipchak, 
and in the fourteenth century was a city of great impor- 
tance, but in 1895 was destroyed by Timur.^ "Saratellis," 
if this is a correct reading of the name, is probably the 

1 Timur, or Tamerlane, founded the fore stated. The town appears to 
second great Mongol empire in cen- have been very larg^, having at one 
tral and western Asia. Sarai, twice time important markets. Ibn Batuta, 
captured by Timur, was completely writing of his visit to this city, de- 
destroyed by him. This city, on the scribes it as very populous and at- 
Akhtuba branch of the Volga River, tractive, adding tiiat it required from 
had been founded by Batu Khan, and early morning until past noon for 
there he had fixed his capital, as be- him to traverse the dty. His account 

16 






Saracanco of Balducci Pigolotti. According to Pigolotti, 
Sara could be reached in a day by water from Astrakhan, 
Saracanco in eight days by water or by land.* The posi- 
tion of these places on our map appears to confirm the 
well-fomided opinion of Yule that we should distinguish 
between two cities designated Sara: an older one, a day's 
journey from Astrakhan, which clearly appears on our map 
as a city at the mouth of the Volga, and a later one which 
appears farther up-stream, that is, Saracanco, a name 
which may signify Great Sara.^ The ruins of the former 
are near the present city Sehtrenoie, of the latter near 
Tsaref. 

We also find the region "Zichia" designated on the 
north and northwest slope of the Caucasus, and, on the 
Black Sea, "SavastopoU," "KaflFa," "Pidea," "Flordelis," 
"Turlo" and "Moncastro." 

On the Hellenic- Slavic peninsula we find the names 
"Sclavonia" and "Albania," which had but recently with- 
stood an attack of the Turks ; here also are "Macedonia," 
"Grecia" and "Morea." Of the cities in this region we find 
represented "Varna," especially distinguished by reason 
of the battle of 1444 ; "Vicina" ( Widdin) , often mentioned 
• in the records of the battles of that period; "Belgrade," 
which likewise after 1440 suffered from repeated attacks of 
the Turks; "Enes" (Enos) and "Galipoli," which was on 
the highway of the Turks in their marches westward into 
Em-ope; also "Salonichi," with two additional but imde- 



of this Kipchak capital is interesting. Beazley: Dawn of Mod. Oeog., Vol. 

Defr^mery et Sanguinettit Voyages III, pp. 394-339, for an analysis and 

d'Ibn Batoutah, VoL III, pp. 447, 448. an estimate of Pigolotti's contribution 

1 See, for a partial translation of to geography. 
Pigolotti's handbook for merchant 2 Yule: Marco Polo, VoL I, pp. 5, 

travelers. Yule: Cathay and the Way 6. An interesting note may here be 

Thither, Vol. II, pp. 987-308; also found bearing upon the subject. 

16 



cipherable names in Greece. From the names given which 
so frequently appear in the history of the period that of 
Constantinople is omitted.^ 

1 Though not & conclusive argu- nople in his map, had It been drawn 
ment, it seems probable that our an- as early as 1M7. In li&l that d^ 
thor would have inserted Constanti- hod been lost to the Turks. 



ASIA 

IN the representation of the Asiatic continent the in- 
fluence of Ptolemy on our cartographer is more 
marked, both in the general outline of the land areas 
and in the representation of the mountain-ranges. The 
southern coast of the continent, from Arabia and the Per- 
sian Gulf to Further India, exhibits the Ptolemaic influ- 
ence in particular, though our Genoese gives evidence of 
possessing a good knowledge of some of the most recent 
reports of travelers. The remarkably strong ebb and flow 
of the waters in the Persian Gulf at the mouth of the 
Euphrates and Tigris rivers, observed by Conti,^ is thought 
by our cartographer worthy of mention: "Sinus persicus 
in quo mare fluit et refluit velut oceanus": "The Persian 
Gulf, in which the sea ebbs and flows as in the ocean." Such 
a map record seems to appear here for the first time. 

The peninsula Guzerat is better drawn than by Ptolemy, 
and the Bay of Cambay appears as a deep inlet of the 
ocean into which a broad river-perhaps the Mahi-emp- 
ties. This section of the coast could not well remain un- 
known to travelers coming from the mouth of the Indus 
River. In the place of Ptolemy's Taprobana two islands 
are represented, the larger of which, though appearing in 
outline to be Taprobana, is rather to be taken as a repre- 
sentation of Sumatra, while the smaller bears the name 

1 Conti refers to the *Tersian Gulf, where the sea rises and falls in the 
manner of the Atlantic Ocean." Hk, 8., p. 5. 

18 



Ceylon. A legend near this reads: "Xilana insula trium 
Tniliiinri miliariomm ambitum continens, rubinis, saphiris, 
granatis et occulis gate decora, cinamomnm ex arboribus 
salicibus nostris similibus gignit. In insula hae lacus est 
in cuius medio civitas nobilis cuius incole astrologie dediti 
omnia futura predicunt": "The island of Ceylon, having a 
circumference of three thousand miles, is rich in rubies, 
sapphires, and cat's-eyes, and produces cinnamon from 
trees similar to our willow tree. In this island there is a 
lake, in the middle of which is a noble city whose inhabi- 
tants, given over to astrology, predict all future events." 
The position of Ceylon was now well known, being here 
placed to the east of a peninsula which we can recognize as 
the southern point of India. In this as well as in other 
parts of extreme southern Asia our cosmographer seems 
especially to exhibit an acquaintance with the record of the 
distinguished Italian traveler Nicolo di Conti. 

In the interior of Ceylon a lake appears which may owe 
its origin to a statement made by Pliny or may be an at- 
tempt to represent some one or more of the niraierous 
artificial reservoirs or tanks for which the island is famous.* 

In their outlines there is a certain similarity between the 



1 Pliny, referring to Taprobana, 
says that 'iiie age and armes of Alex- 
ander the Great were the first to give 
satisfactory proof that it is an island." 
He also states, referring to an em- 
bassy which came from this distant 
island to Rome in the time of the 
Emperor Claudius: *'They informed 
us that in the interior [of the island] 
there is a lake called Megisba three 
hundred and seventy-fiye miles in cir- 
cumference and containing islands 
which are fertile." Pliny: Nat. Hi»t, 
Book VI, CSiapter xziv. Conti re- 
cords that '*in the middle of the Gulf 
[Bay ot Bengal] there is a very noble 



island called Zeilan, which is three 
thousand miles in circumference, and 
in which they find by digging, rubies, 
sapphires, garnets and those stones 
which are called cat*s-eyes. ... In 
this island there is a lake, in the mid- 
dle of which is a city three miles in 
circumference." Hk. 8,, p. 7. Marco 
Polo says the island is two thousand 
four hundred miles in circumference, 
but observes that in old time it had 
a circuit of three thousand six hun- 
dred miles. See Yulet Marco Polo, 
Vol. II, pp. 319-316, for a chapter on 
"Seilan." Ceylon was Ptolemy's Ta- 
probana. 



19 



ASIA 

IN the representation of the Asiatic continent the in- 
fluence of Ptolemy on our cartographer is more 
marked, both in the general outline of the land areas 
and in the representation of the moimtain-ranges. The 
southern coast of the continent, from Arabia and the Per- 
sian Gulf to Further India, exhibits the Ptolemaic influ- 
ence in particular, though our Genoese gives evidence of 
possessing a good knowledge of some of the most recent 
reports of travelers. The remarkably strong ebb and flow 
of the waters in the Persian Gulf at the mouth of the 
Euphrates and Tigris rivers, observed by Conti,^ is thought 
by our cartographer worthy of mention: "Sinus persicus 
in quo mare fluit et refluit velut oceanus" : "The Persian 
Gulf, in which the sea ebbs and flows as in the ocean." Such 
a map record seems to appear here for the first tune. 

The peninsula Guzerat is better drawn than by Ptolemy, 
and the Bay of Cambay appears as a deep inlet of the 
ocean into which a broad river— perhaps the Mahi— emp- 
ties. This section of the coast could not well remain un- 
known to travelers coming from the mouth of the Indus 
River. In the place of Ptolemy's Taprobana two islands 
are represented, the larger of which, though appearing in 
outline to be Taprobana, is rather to be taken as a repre- 
sentation of Sumatra, while the smaller bears the name 

1 Conti refers to the ^'Persian Gulf, where the sea rises and falls in the 
manner of the Atlantic Ocean." Hk, 8,, p. 5, 

18 



Ceylon. A legend near this reads: "Xilana insula trium 
milium miliariorum ambitum eontinens, rubinis, saphiris, 
granatis et occulis gate decora, cinamomum ex arboribus 
salicibus nostris similibus gignit. In insula hac lacus est 
in cuius medio civitas nobilis cuius incole astrologie dediti 
onmia futiu^a predicimt": "The island of Ceylon, having a 
circumference of three thousand miles, is rich in rubies, 
sapphires, and cat's-eyes, and produces cinnamon from 
trees similar to our willow tree. In this island there is a 
lake, in the middle of which is a noble city whose inhabi- 
tants, given over to astrology, predict all future events." 
The position of Ceylon was now well known, being here 
placed to the east of a peninsula which we can recognize as 
the southern point of India. In this as well as in other 
parts of extreme southern Asia om* cosmographer seems 
especially to exhibit an acquaintance with the record of the 
distinguished Italian traveler Nicolo di Conti. 

In the interior of Ceylon a lake appears which may owe 
its origin to a statement made by Pliny or may be an at- 
tempt to represent some one or more of the mmierous 
artificial reservoirs or tanks for which the island is famous.^ 

In their outlines there is a certain similarity between the 



1 Pliny, referring to Taprobana, 
says that **\he age and armes of Alex- 
ander the Great were the first to give 
satisfactory proof that it is an island." 
He also states, referring to an em- 
bassy which came from this distant 
island to Rome in the time of the 
Emperor Claudius: ''They informed 
US tiiat in the interior [of the island] 
there is a lake called Megisba three 
hundred and seventy-five miles in cir- 
cumference and containing islands 
which are fertile." Pliny: Nat. Hist, 
Book Vly C!hapter xxiv. Conti re- 
cords that *nn the middle of the Gulf 
[Bay of Bengal] there is a very noble 



island called Zeilan, which is three 
thousand miles in circumference, and 
in which they find by digging, rubies, 
sapphires, garnets and those stones 
which are called cat's-eyes. ... In 
this island there is a lake, in the mid- 
dle of which is a city three miles in 
circumference." Hk, 8,, p. 7. Marco 
Polo says the island is two thousand 
four hundred miles in circumference, 
but observes that in old time it had 
a circuit of three thousand six hun- 
dred miles. See Yulex Marco Polo, 
Vol. II, pp. 31S-316, for a chapter on 
"Seilan." Ceylon was Ptolemy's Ta- 
probana. 



19 



islands Ceylon and Sumatra as represented by our Genoese 
map-maker and the same islands as they appear on the 
maps of Ptolemy. The somewhat lengthy legend here 
reads as follows: ''Insularum notarmn Traprobana maior 
que sexdecies contenis milibus passuum patere ambitu 
affirmatur. Post banc Anglia inde Java maior, mde mi- 
nor, post eas Ibemia et Xilana, post quam Cecilia, post 
banc Sardinia, inde Corsica, inde Cyprius et Candia. 
Huius Traprobane que eorum lingua Cimiteria dicitur in- 
cole crudeles aures magnas, in auribus ornatas habent 
linteis vestiti, ydolatre omnes, pipere, camphora et auro 
plurimo redundantes, piperis arbor edere similis grana ut 
iunipery ferens. Huius insule partem antropophagi 
habitant continue cum vicinis bellantes capita humana 
pro thesauro recondunt esis camibus et qui plura capita 
habuerit ditior est": "Of the islands which are known, 
Taprobana is said to have a circumference of more 
than sixteen hundred miles, next to which is Anglia, 
then Java the Greater and Java the Less: after these 
islands Ceylon, then Sicily, and after this Sardinia, 
and following in order, Corsica, Cyprus and Candia. 
The inhabitants of this Taprobana, which in their language 
is called Ciamutera, are barbarians, having large ears in 
which they wear ornaments, and they dress in linen clothes. 
They are all idolaters. They have an abundance of pep- 
per, camphor and much gold. The pepper tree when it 
bears has seeds like the juniper. Cannibals inhabit a part 
of this island, who, continually waging war with their 
neighbors, make a collection of himian heads as treasures, 
and he who has the most heads is the richest." This descrip- 
tion of Taprobana appears clearly to have been taken from 
Conti, and it is very interesting to observe that our car- 
tographer, not in a very successful manner, has attempted 

SO 



to bring the report of Conti into accord with Ptolemy. 
Ptolemy's Taprobana, by which we are to understand 
Ceylon, is to our author Sumatra, as the legend above indi- 
cates, and near by he places his Ceylon, although Conti 
expressly states that with favorable wind he traveled in 
twenty days from Ceylon to Sumatra, leaving Andaman, 
inhabited by cannibals, on the left of his coiu-se.^ 

The name Simiatra, which our cosmographer, together 
with Conti, considers to be the native name, seems first to 
have become a more or less familiar one in Europe in the 
fourteenth century.^ In the story of Ibn Batuta it appears 
as the name of a city;^ Odorich of Pordenome refers to it 
as the name of a locality;* while in the story of Conti for 
the first time it clearly appears as the name of an island. 
According to a conjecture of Yule, the name Sumara, 
which appears in a manuscript of Marco Polo as the name 
of one of the kingdoms of the island, is only a corruption 
of Sumatra.*^ Marco Polo, the first traveler from the west 
who seems to have brought definite word from Sumatra, 
called it Java the Less, under which name, however, ac- 
cording to our cosmographer, we are to understand Java 
or Borneo. Conti gives to the island a circimiference of 
about two thousand miles, as does Marco Polo, which is 



iQn leaying Ceylon, Conti "sailed 
for a space of twenty days with a 
favorable wind, passing on the right 
of an island cidled Andamania, which 
means the Island of Gold, the circum- 
ference of which is eight hmidred 
miles." This group he thought to be 
one island. Hk, 8., p. 8. Major's edi- 
tion of Conti erroneously makes it 
appear that he had the island "on 
his right hand." On this point it does 
not appear that our map-maker fol- 
lowed Conti. 

s Conti refers to *the island of Ta- 



probana, which island is called by the 
natives Sciamuthra." Hk, 8,, p. 8. 
"Taprobana," he says, **is six thou- 
sand miles in circumference." 

8 Ibn Batuta writes of having spent 
fifteen days at the court of Samudra. 
Defr6mery et Sanguinetti: Voyag§s, 
Vol IV, pp. 238, 306. 

^"In the same island [Lamori] to- 
wards the south is another kingdom 
by name Sumoltra." Yule: Cathay, 
Vol. I, p. 86. 

5 See Yule: Marco Polo, Vol. II, 
pp. 994 et seq. 



SI 



very nearly correct. In its outlines Further India is Ptol- 
emaiCy a fact which is especially noticeable in the very 
prominent peninsular character. It stretches toward the 
south, terminating in a prominent Golden Chersonese, a 
name which the legend suggests: "Hie copiose reperitur 
aurum cum jocalibus et lapidibus preciosis": "Here gold is 
found in abundance with jewels and precious stones." 

The long southern coa^ which, according to Ptolemy, 
makes of the Indian Ocean an enclosed sea, and which in 
part appears in the Edrisi and the Sanuto maps, has been 
omitted here, and the great gulf of Ptolemy on the east 
of the peninsula becomes in our map an open sea, corre- 
sponding to the account of Conti and other travelers, which 
sea had been found difficult of navigation because of con- 
tinually unfavorable wind. 

Concerning the two large islands lying off the east coast 
of Asia, a legend gives the following information: "Hec 
insule Jaue dicte sunt quanmi major tribus alters duobus 
milibus miliarum protendunter absuntque a contmente 
mensis navigatione et ipsis centum miliaribus propinque. 
Istas nepharii et immundi habitant homines quibus homi- 
nem occidere pro ludo; uxores quotlibet sumimt": "These 
islands are called Java, of which the greater in circum- 
ference is three, and the other two thousand miles. They 
are one month's journey from the continent, and are one 
hundred miles apart. Ignorant and wicked men inhabit 
these islands, who think it sport to kill a man. They have 
as many wives as they wish." 

This legend, taken from Conti,* it seems should be con- 

1 ''In Central India there are two other two thousand. Both are situ- 

islands towards the extreme confines ated towards the east, and are distin- 

of the world, both of which are called guished from each other by the names 

Java. One of these islands is three of the Greater and the Less. These 

thousand miles in circumference, the islands lay in his route to the ocean. 

22 



sidered as referring to Borneo and Java, which he visited, 
though in outline there is an altogether incorrect represen- 
tation of the islands. Further toward the southeast, in the 
ocean, lie two small islands likewise sketched from Conti's 
description,^ which islands undoubtedly are intended to 
represent the Moluccas, a knowledge of which he first 
brought to Europe. Here a legend reads: "Sanday et 
Bandan dicuntur insule iste, nam Sanday crocea, nuces 
muscatas et macis, Bandan vero gariofilorum copiam ad 
Javas transmittunt utrisque incole nigri sunt. Bandan 
item triplicis generis habet psitacos, rubeos, croceosque 
rostro versicolores et albos. Albi namque galinis sunt 
pares qui transeuntibus locimtvu* et dant responsa" : "These 
islands are called Sanday and Bandan. Sanday sends saf- 
fron, nuts, muscatas, and maces to the Javas, Bandan an 
abundance of cloves. The inhabitants of both are black. 
Bandan, moreover, has parrots of three kinds: red ones, 
those of variegated color with yellow beaks, and white ones 
the size of hens." 

Conti did not himself visit these islands, though he gives 
their position as fifteen days' joiu-ney east of Java Major 
and Minor, to which their products were brought for trans- 
portation to the west. Cloves at that time came only from 
the small islands of the Moluccas lying west of Halmahera, 
which perhaps our author has attempted here to represent. 
The name Sanday is unknown, and Bandan is only a cor- 
ruption, and should not be confounded with Banda, as 
cloves do not come from that island. The negro popula- 

They are distant from the continent nutmegs and maces grow; the other 

one month's sail, and lie within a hmi- is named Bandan; this is the only 

dred miles of each other.'* Hk. 8,, island in which cloves grow, which 

p. 15. are exported hence to the Java Islands. 

1 ''At fifteen days' sail beyond these . . . The inhabitants of both islands 

islands eastward, two others are fowid: are black." Hk, 8., p. 17. 



the one is called Sandai, in wliich 



23 



tions of these islands are those driven out by the Malays, 
that is, they are the original black inhabitants of the Malay 
Archipelago, who in Conti's account are referred to in 
European literature for the first time, and who are now 
generally spoken of as the Asiatic Papuans, or Negritfcs. 
It is interesting that even to-day, after four hundred and 
fifty years, the original populations of the Moluccas and 
Halmahera still exist. 

The first European who actually visited the Moluccas 
was the Italian Varthena,^ about seventy years after Con- 
ti's expedition to the East. The islands were considered 
as lying on the boundary of the habitable and known 
world, and as marking the limit of navigation.^ 

It is not easy to determine the significance of a gulf 
which extends far into the east coast of Asia north of Bor- 
neo and Java. The gulf forms the boundary between 
China (Sine) and the forest region of northern Asia. On 
the southern shore near the mouth of the gulf lies the city 
"Pauconia." If we have here an attempt at a representa- 
tion of the Gulf of Siam, the city Pauconia is probably 
Bangkok.^ We may have in this gulf one of the earliest 
cartographical representations of the Yellow Sea and the 
Gulf of Petchili. 

The name Sine, or Sina, which was never used in the 
middle ages, and which in all probability our map-maker 
took from Ptolemy, suggests that the gulf is likewise from 



iFor a translation of Varthena's 
travels, with a preface by John Win- 
ter Jones, and edited with notes and 
introduction by George Percy Badger, 
see Hakluyt Society Publications, 1864. 

« Conti states: "The sea is not navi- 
gable beyond those islands [referring 
to "Sandai" and "Bandan"], and the 
stormy atmosphere keeps navigators 
at a distance." Hk, 8,, p. 17. 



8 Marco Polo refers to a **fine city 
of Paukin," which is identified by 
Cordier as Pao-Ying-Hien, in lati- 
tude somewhat north of the mouth of 
the Yang-tse-kiang River. Though 
the names are similar, it is hardly 
probable the places are identicid. 
Yule: Marco Polo, VoL II, p. 152. 



M 



Ptolemy, and in order to find space for the new discovery 
it has been placed farther north. ^ 

The northeast coast of Asia is in part determined by the 
form of the map. and in part is arbitrarily drawn, as are 
also the nimierous islands, not one of which we are able to 
identify. In the Indian Ocean there are legends and 
mythical animals. West of the Golden Chersonese is an 
animal with the tail of a fish, a humanlike head and large 
horns and ears, with outstretched arms so attached to the 
body as to make them serviceable in flying or swimming. 
A legend gives the following information: "Hec figura 
pisds nuper in Candia vacas circa litus maris pascentes de 
mari exiliens, invasit qui captus Veneciis delatus est 
cuiusque effigies configurata ad loca multa terre est trans- 
missa;': "This species of fish, recently [caught?] in 
Candia, feeds upon the meadows of the shore like cows. It 
was captured and exhibited to the Venetians. It was 
mounted and carried about to many parts of the country." 

The reference appears to be to a marine animal, perhaps 
the dugong, which, resembling a cow and accustomed to 
graze in the fields along the seashore, was captured in the 
East and brought to Venice. That rare animals at the 
time of the construction of ovu* map were brought to Italy, 
where they were viewed with astonishment by the natives, 
certain observations of Benedetto Dei bear witness.^ Men- 
tion may be made of the peacock which he brought from 
Alexandria for Cosimo de' Medici; also of a chameleon, 
and, more important than all, of "un serpente di Br.[acci] 
otto e grosso 8.4 in circa con 100 denti e 111 J gambe Iptero 
di gulto," which he seems to have brought to Florence from 
Beirut. We may have here a reference to the crocodile. 

1 See Ptolemy's Map 11. 
3 Amat di S. Filippo: Studi Biografici § BibUografid, I, p. 153. 

S5 



As these are yet to be found in northern Palestine in the 
Wadi Zerka district, it must have been altogether possible 
to obtain them in Beirut in that day.^ Perhaps the sug- 
gestion was derived from Conti, who refers to a fabulous 
marine animal described to him in Further India, which at 
night came out of the sea and caught fish by artificial fire.^ 
One here recalls a passage in Marco Polo's narrative, 
wherein he gives warning that if travelers returning bring 
pygmies home with them, and assert that they come from 
India, the statement should not be credited.^ Similar mar- 
velous beings are likewise represented in other parts of the 
Indian Ocean, such as an animal with the body of a fish 
and the head of a woman, that is, a siren; also a fish with a 
humanlike head and large fins with sharp spikes thereon. 
Near this monster is the legend: "Plinius 144 pisciiun ge- 



1 "The river Zerka, a torpid stream 
flowing through fetid marshes, in 
which reeds, canes and the stunted 
papyrus grow, and where alone in 
Palestine the crocodile is found." 
PaUitine Exploration Fund, Quar- 
terly Statement, 1874, p. 11. 

2 "Having quitted Coloen, he arrived, 
after a journey of three days, at the 
city Cocjrm. This city is Ave miles 
in circumference, and stands at the 
mouth of a river, from which it der 
rives its name. Sailing for some^time 
in this river, he saw many fires lighted 
along its banks, and thou^t that they 
were made by fishermen. But those 
who were with him in the ship ex- 
claimed, smiling, 'IcepeT 'Icepel' 
These have the himian form, but may 
be called either fishes or monsters, 
which, issuing from the water at 
night, collect wood, and procuring fire 
by striking one stone against another, 
ignite it and bum it near the water. 
The fishes, attracted by the light, swim 
toward it in great numbers, when 



these monsters, which lie hid in the 
water, seize and devour them. They 
said that some which they had taken, 
both male and female, differ in no 
respect as to their form from human 
beings." Hk, 8,, p. 19. 

8"! may tell you, moreover, that 
when people bring home pygmies 
which they allege to come from India, 
't is all a lie and a cheat. For those 
little men, as they call them, are 
manufactured on this Island, and I 
will tell you how. You see, there is 
on the Island a kind of monkey which 
is very small, and has a face like a 
man's. They take these, and pluck 
out all the hair except the hair of the 
beard and on the breast, and they 
dry them and stuff them and daub 
them with saffron and other things 
until they look like men. But you see 
it is all a cheat; for nowhere in India 
nor anywhere else in the world were 
there ever men so small as these pre- 
tended pygmies." Yule: Marco Polo, 
Vol. II, pp. 285, 286. 



26 



nera enumerat, inter quos hunc serram nole describit a^e- 
rens eum cum eius eumque crista serrata sepuis naves in- 
dorum frangere solo impetu, ac ubi serram infra ligna 
aflSxerit ab eis retentus evadere non valet se ipsmn peri- 
mit": "Pliny enumerates 144 species of fishes, and among 
tiiem he describes this swordfish, asserting that, with ite 
swordlike beak, it often transfixes the ships of the natives 
of India by single attack; but when this fish becomes fast 
within [the ship's side] and is unable to escape, it kills 
itself."^ 

Of particular importance are the other legends in the 
Indian Ocean apparently derived from Conti. 

One of these reads: "In iioc mari australis poli aspectus 
navigant septentrionali absconso": "In the South Polar 
Sea they navigate with the North Pole not in sight." ^ 

The other legend, near the picture of a three-masted 
ship, reads : "Indicus pelagus multis occupatur insulis, sco- 
pulis et scirtis, hec ideo eorum naves pluribus construuntur 
medianis quatenus si in aliqua parte frangantur pars re- 
liqua ad eorum iter complendimi sufficienter suppleat. Quas 
etiam pluribus malis de tribus ad X communientes velis 
quoque ex arundinibus et palmarum f oliis contextis utentes 
velocissime suum curcima perficiunt. Et eis permaxime 
speciebus et ceteris aromatibus oneratis sepius ad Mechan 
Arabic applicantes mercatoribus occidentalibus per muta- 
tionem mercium iniunt": "The Indian Sea is filled with 

iThis legend is taken from Pliny's one hundred and forty-four, though 
Natural History, a work rich in such others have given the reading seventy- 
stories. Although surpassed by Isi- six. Pliny's Book IX is entirely de- 
dore and Solinus in accounts of things voted to a consideration of fishes, 
marvelous, Pliny was especially held 2 <<The natives of India steer their 
in high esteem by cosmographers dur- vessels for the most part by the stars 
ing the middle ages. See Book IX, of the Southern Hemisphere, as they 
Chapter vi. There is some doubt here rarely see those of the North." Hk. 
as to the exact meaning of Pliny. 8., p. 26, 
Hardouin thinks the reading should be 

27 



many islands, rocks and sand-banks. Their ships, there- 
fore, are constructed with many compartments, to the end 
that if they are broken in any part, the remaining parts 
may be sufficiently strong to complete the course. These, 
moreover, are supplied with several masts,— from three to 
ten, — and having sails made of reeds and palm-leaves j oined 
together, they pursue their courses with great rapidity. 
And these [ships], loaded in particular with spices and 
other aromatics, sailing rather often to Mecca in Arabia, 
trade with the Western merchants through an exchange 
of their goods." 

We find on other world maps similar information con- 
cerning the construction of ships which sailed the Indian 
Ocean, as well as information concerning trade routes.^ 

The legend on our map relates in part to the Chinese 
junks, in part to the trade with India, which in the fifteenth 
centiuy was in the hands of the Arabians, from whom the 
Portuguese seized it. Chinese jimks, after an interval of 
five hundred years, again sailed the Indian Ocean at the 
end of the thirteenth century. Marco Polo, who, on his 
homeward journey, sailed in one of them as far as Malabar, 
gives us a detailed picture of these boats.^ 

Conti has also an interesting description of them.^ 



1 See the Catalan World Map, 1375. 
Reproduction facing p. 44. 

2 Yule: Marco Polo, Vol. II, pp. 
349, 253. Marco Polo devotes an en- 
tire chapter to 'the merchant ships of 
Manzi that sail upon the Indian seas." 

8 Referring to the natives of India, 
Conti says: **They are not acquainted 
with the use of the compass, but mea- 
sure their courses and the distances 
of places by the elevation and depres- 
sion of the pole. They find out where 
they are by this mode of measure- 
ment. They build some ships much 



larger than others, capable of con- 
taining two thousand butts, and with 
five sails and as many masts. The 
lower part is constructed with triple 
planks, in order to withstand the force 
of the tempests to which they are ex- 
posed; but some ships are so built in 
compartments that should one part be 
shattered, the other portion remaining 
entire may accomplish the voyage," 
Hk. 8., p. 26. The watertight com- 
partments which Europeans first 
made use of in modern times, re- 
ferred to here by Conti, and fully 



S8 



Ibn Batuta also describes them minutely, making men- 
tion of ships which could carry a thousand men-six hun- 
dred seamen and four hmidred soldiers/ Such ships were 
much larger than those which then sailed the Mediterra- 
nean. In addition to the sails, which were made of bamboo 
matting and attached to four or more masts, these Indian 
ships had rudders, which were handled by from ten to 
thirty men. The larger vessels also carried small boats, 
which were used, as Marco Polo states, "to lay out the 
anchors, catch fish, bring supplies aboard, and the like. 
When the ship is xmder sail, she carries these boats slung 
to her side." Many of the vessels had as many as four 
decks, and even the smaller ones, fifty or sixty cabins. 
Vegetables, we are told, were sometimes grown on board. 

The river and the mountain systems of Asia have many 
peculiarities. Near the Persian Gulf in Arabia a moimtain 
is represented, out of which fiows a river, emptying north 
of Mecca, which doubtless is the Betius of Ptolemy. 
Diagonally across the northern part of the peninsula 
stretches a mountain-range. "Mons Synai," near the 
northern border of the Red Sea, is represented, on the 
summit of which is the Convent of St. Catherine ; ^ and we 
also find here the highlands of Armenia, out of which flow 
the Euphrates and Tigris, these highlands being espe- 
cially distinguished by a representation of Noah's ark. In 
Syria, to the south of Damascus, "Mare Tiberiadis" ap- 
pears as a large lake. In the Gulf of Iskanderun a river 
empties, flowing out of the northeast, recognizable as the 

described by Marco Polo, are in use elude this region have a representa- 

to-day in China, both for sea-going tion of the Convent of St. Catherine 

vessels and for certain river-craft. of Alexandria located on Mount 

1 See the interesting citation from Sinai. Throughout the middle ages, 

Ibn Batuta in Yule: Marco Polo, Vol. she was ranked as one of the most 

II, p. 252. helpful saints. See Catholic EnoycUh- 

3 Most of the early maps which in- padia, art. ''Catherine of Alexandria.** 

29 



many islands, rocks and sand-banks. Their ships, there- 
fore, are constructed with many compartments, to the end 
that if they are broken in any part, the remaining parts 
may be sufficiently strong to complete the course. These, 
moreover, are supplied with several masts,— from three to 
ten, — and having sails made of reeds and palm-leaves j oined 
together, they pursue their courses with great rapidity. 
And these [ships], loaded in particular with spices and 
other aromatics, sailing rather often to Mecca in Arabia, 
trade with the Western merchants through an exchange 
of their goods." 

We find on other world maps similar information con- 
cerning the construction of ships which sailed the Indian 
Ocean, as well as information concerning trade routes.^ 

The legend on our map relates in part to the Chinese 
junks, in part to the trade with India, which in the fifteenth 
century was in the hands of the Arabians, from whom the 
Portuguese seized it. Chinese jimks, after an interval of 
five hundred years, again sailed the Indian Ocean at the 
end of the thirteenth century. Marco Polo, who, on his 
homeward journey, sailed in one of them as far as Malabar, 
gives us a detailed picture of these boats.^ 

Conti has also an interesting description of them.^ 



1 See the Catalan World Map, 1375. 
Reproduction facing p. 44. 

2 Yule: Marco Polo, Vol. II, pp. 
249, 253. Marco Polo devotes an en- 
tire chapter to 'the merchant ships of 
Manzi that sail upon the Indian seas." 

8 Referring to the natives of India, 
Conti says: ''They are not acquainted 
with the use of the compass, but mea- 
sure their courses £ind the distances 
of places by the elevation and depres- 
sion of the pole. They find out where 
they are by this mode of measure- 
ment. They build some ships much 



larger than others, capable of con- 
taining two thousand butts, and with 
five sails and as many masts. The 
lower part is constructed with triple 
planks, in order to withstand the force 
of the tempests to which they are ex- 
posed; but some ships are so built in 
compartments that should one part be 
shattered, the other portion remcdning 
entire may accomplish the voyage." 
Hk, 8., p. 26. The watertight com- 
partments which Europeans first 
made use of in modem times, re- 
ferred to here by Conti, and fully 



S8 



Ibn Batuta also describes them minutely, making men- 
tion of ships which could carry a thousand men — six hun- 
dred seamen and four hundred soldiers/ Such ships were 
much larger than those which then sailed the Mediterra- 
nean. In addition to the sails, which were made of bamboo 
matting and attached to four or more masts, these Indian 
ships had rudders, which were handled by from ten to 
thirty men. The larger vessels also carried small boats, 
which were used, as Marco Polo states, "to lay out the 
anchors, catch fish, bring supplies aboard, and the like. 
When the ship is under sail, she carries these boats slung 
to her side." Many of the vessels had as many as four 
decks, and even the smaller ones, fifty or sixty cabins. 
Vegetables, we are told, were sometimes grown on board. 

The river and the mountain systems of Asia have many 
peculiarities. Near the Persian Gulf in Arabia a mountain 
is represented, out of which flows a river, emptying north 
of Mecca, which doubtless is the Betius of Ptolemy. 
Diagonally across the northern part of the peninsula 
stretches a mountain-range. "Mons Synai," near the 
northern border of the Red Sea, is represented, on the 
summit of which is the Convent of St. Catherine ; ^ and we 
also find here the highlands of Armenia, out of which flow 
the Euphrates and Tigris, these highlands being espe- 
cially distinguished by a representation of Noah's ark. In 
Syria, to the south of Damascus, "Mare Tiberiadis" ap- 
pears as a large lake. In the Gulf of Iskanderun a river 
empties, flowing out of the northeast, recognizable as the 

described by Marco Polo, are in use elude this region have a representa- 

to-day in China, both for sea-going tion of the Convent of St. Catherine 

vessels and for certain river-craft. of Alexandria located on Mount 

1 See the interesting citation from Sinai. Throughout the middle ages, 
Ibn Batuta in Yule: Marco Polo, Vol. she was ranked as one of the most 
II, p. ^9. helpful saints. See CathoUo Enoyclo- 

2 Most of the early maps which in- pcedia, art. "Catherine of Alexandria." 

^9 



Dschihan, on which lies the city Antioch. The Caucasus 
stretches across the isthmus between the Black and the 
Caspian seas, and as numerous rivers rising in the Cau- 
casus empty into the former, the mountain-range had to be 
drawn nearer the Caspian Sea in order that there might be 
sufficient space for the range and the representation of the 
Iron Gate near Derbent. This city is distinguished by a 
strong tower and the legend : "Derbent quod lingua eorum 
id quod porte ferri" : "This is Derbent, which in their lan- 
guage [means] a gate of iron." The Iron Gate, usually 
associated with Alexander the Great and the apocalyptic 
people, Gog and Magog, has an important place on the 
world maps of the middle ages. Doubtless it was the me- 
dieval wall stretching from the mountains to the sea near 
Derbent, closing the road along the Caspian Sea to the 
peoples of the steppes on the north, that called forth the 
legend of the Iron Door.^ The city itself, Derbent, was 



1 Marco Polo says: **This is the 
country beyond whidi Alexander could 
not pass when he wished to penetrate 
to the region of the Ponent, because 
that the defile was so narrow and 
perilous, the sea lying on the one 
hand, and on the other lofty moun- 
tains impassable to horsemen. The 
strait extends like this for four 
leagues, and a handful of people 
might hold it against all the world. 
Alexander caused a very strong tower 
to be built there to prevent the people 
beyond from passing to attack him, 
and this got the name of the Iron 
Gate. This is the place that the Book 
of Alexander speaks of when it tells 
us how he shut up the Tartars be- 
tween two mountains: not that they 
were really Tartars, however, for 
there were no Tartars in those days, 
but they consisted of a race of people 
called Comanians, and many besides." 
Yule: Marco Polo, Vol. II, p. 50. 



A wall of defense appears to have 
been constructed here at a very early 
date, and to have been renewed and 
extended at various times in succeed- 
ing centuries. The Alexander legend 
tells of that great ruler's forcing a 
number of cannibal nations into a 
mountain gorge and praying that 
they might be shut up therein. The 
legend records that the mountains 
drew close together, and Alexander 
then built up the narrow gorge and 
closed it with gates of iron and brass. 
This legend came to be associated with 
the Pass and Wall of Derbent. There 
seems to be good reason for believing 
the first fortress of Derbent was com- 
pleted about 549 a.d. The belief that 
the Tartars were identical with Gog 
and Magog led to the gates or ram- 
parts of Alexander being identified as 
the Wall of China. 



30 



founded in the middle ages by the Persian Sassanids, for 
the purpose of guarding this pass. The word is Persian, 
signifying gate or narrow pass, and is a name often met 
with in Persia. In Arabic the city is called Bab-el-Khadid, 
in Turkish Demir Khapussu, that is. Iron Door. The wall 
stretching landward along the moimtain-ridge is yet, in 
part, well preserved, and one can follow its ruins for a 
distance of many miles. According to popular tradition, 
it extends along the entire ridge of the Caucasus, and so it 
appears on our map extending from the second iron door, 
or pass, across Asia. A legend on the map of the Pizigani 
makes it clear that the wall from Derbent was originally 
constructed to protect the Persian territory from the peo- 
ple of the steppe region. One of the castles on this map is 
distinguished by the legend, "Hie est custodia husbeci 
[Khan Usbech]"; the other by the legend, "Caiob est 
custodia bunsa [Khan Bunsay of Persia]." This narrow 
pass between the steppes on the north and the cultivable 
regions on the south has been especially significant in all 
periods and is probably recognizable as the Sarmatian g^te 
of Ptolemy. 

As has been said, the Caspian Sea is drawn according to 
Ptolemy. It is rich in islands and is called "Mar de Sara," 
after the principal city of the Kipchak. Marco Polo 
called it the Sea of Ghel, or Ghelan, since Gilan, the city 
whence silks came, was to the Italians the best-known citv 
on its shores.^ The map of Pizigani^ represents it, and gives 
the several names under which it was known in the middle 
ages: Sea of Sara, Caspian Sea, Sea of Dschordschan (the 
southeast shoreland), Sea of Baku, and Sea of Gilan, but 
it was most frequently called Baku, after the city. Aside 

1 The name may originally have been taken from the ancient Gelie, 

who lived at one time in this country. 
2 See reproduction facing p. 30. 

31 



founded in the middle ages by the Persian Sassanids, for 
the purpose of guarding this pass. The word is Persian, 
signifying gate or narrow pass, and is a name often met 
with in Persia. In Arabic the city is called Bab-el- Kliadid, 
in Turkish Demir Khapussu, that is, Iron Door. The wall 
stretching landward along the mountain-ridge is yet, in 
part, well preserved, and one can follow its ruins for a 
distance of many miles. According to popular tradition, 
it extends along the entire ridge of the Caucasus, and so it 
appears on our map extending from the second iron door, 
or pass, across Asia. A legend on the map of the Pizigani 
makes it clear that the wall from Derbent was originally 
constructed to protect the Persian territory from the peo- 
ple of the steppe region. One of the castles on this map is 
distinguished by the legend, "Hie est custodia husbeci 
[Khan Usbech]"; the other by the legend, "Caiob est 
custodia bimsa [Khan Bunsay of Persia]." This narrow 
pass between the steppes on the north and the cultivable 
regions on the south has been especially significant in all 
periods and is probably recognizable as the Sarmatian g^te 
of Ptolemy. 

As has been said, the Caspian Sea is drawn according to 
Ptolemy. It is rich in islands and is called "Mar de Sara," 
after the principal city of the Kipchak. Marco Polo 
called it the Sea of Ghel, or Ghelan, since Gilan, the city 
whence silks came, was to the Italians the best-known citv 
on its shores.* The map of Pizigani^ represents it, and gives 
the several names under which it was known in the middle 
ages: Sea of Sara, Caspian Sea, Sea of Dschordschan (the 
southeast shoreland). Sea of Baku, and Sea of Gilan, but 
it was most frequently called Baku, after the city. Aside 

1 The name may originally have been taken from the ancient Gelae, 

who lived at one time in this country. 

2 See reproduction facing p. 30. 

81 



from the Volga and the Ural, two other rivers are here 
represented, rising in a range of mountains which extends 
in an east-west direction. One of these is perhaps the 
Emha, the other the Jaxartes of Ptolemy. South of the 
Caspian Sea we find a quadrangle framed by mountains 
which appears to be Parthia, according to the representa- 
tion of Ptolemy. 

A river taking its rise on the east side of this mountain 
quadrangle, and emptying through two mouths into the 
Indian Ocean, cannot be identified, as the chart here con- 
tains numerous errors. It may be a representation of 
the Hilmend. A mountain-range farther eastward, and 
stretching in a northeast-southwest direction, is the east 
Iranian mountain-range, along which flows the Indus. 
This river forms through its four outlets a conspicuous 
delta, and receives from the neighboring mountain-range 
two tributaries. From the mountain-range on the northern 
border of Parthia, a great range stretches diagonally 
across the entire Asiatic continent, to the gulf indicated on 
the east, to which gulf reference has been made. It divides 
the great forest region of northern Asia from southern 
Asia. These mountains clearly are the Taurus, Paropa- 
misus and the Emodas of Ptolemy, the continental axis of 
Asia, that is, the Hindu Kush, the Quen Lun, the Nan 
Schan, and the other border moimtains of eastern central 
Asia to-day, which in their spurs reach almost to the Gulf 
of Petchili. The Ptolemaic Imaus, which divides Scythia 
into Hither and Further Scythia, — "Scithia citra ymaum 
montem" and "Scithia ultra ymaum montes,'* — is very 
prominently represented on our map. It branches in 
diagonal directions westward of the sources of the Indus, 
that is, nearly twenty degrees farther westward from the 
continental axis than it is represented by Ptolemy. 

82 



It is of special interest that in a region so significant by- 
reason of its physical features, where the Pamir High- 
lands, the Hindu Kush, the Himalaya and the Quen Lun 
unite, our cosmographer represents a second "Porte ferri 
ubi Alexander Tartaros inclusit,"— "Iron gate where Alex- 
ander imprisoned the Tartars,"— or a wall with a strong 
gateway. This is doubtless one of the passes lying some- 
what to the west, where Scythia on the north joins with the 
highlands of Iran, and is probably the Khyber. Here was 
a national highway over which, immediately preceding this 
period, the wild people of central Asia so frequently came 
into southern Asia. Indeed, from the most ancient times 
this important highway was the connecting link between 
northern and southern Asia, and its architectural ruins 
—the fortifications erected by the diflPerent peoples at differ- 
e„t times-point to it. sig^cance. Ve^ properly, the 
name of Alexander is associated with it, since through his 
founding of Alexandria ad Caucasum the southern region 
was secured against the attack of the northern barbarians, 
the Scythians, who, in the language of the middle ages, 
were called Tartars. Our cosmographer must have had in- 
formation concerning the numerous towers scattered here 
and there over this pass. As in questions relating to the 
Nile, Ptolemy showed himself to be better informed than 
were geographers of later date,^ even to very recent times, 
so it also appears that his representation of the moimtain 
systems of Asia, though somewhat altered by our author, 
was remarkably well done in the larger general features. 
Herein in particular does the value of the Grenoese map 
appear in a comparison with the larger map by Fra Mauro, 

1 It is interesting to compare the maps with the representations of cer- 
representation of the Nile River and tain seventeenth- and eighteenth-cen- 
its sources as laid down on Ptolemy's tury chart-makers. 

3S 



although the latter is richer in details. In the representa- 
tion of the Indus, for example, with its five branches, our 
author follows Ptolemy. In the region at the foot of the 
mountain between the Indus and the Ganges we find the 
Indian desert represented. In contrast, the Ganges is 
represented according to recent information, that is appar- 
ently from the record of Conti. It receives its water 
through three tributaries from the great watershed. Two 
of these tributaries on the left seem to be the Brahmaputra 
and the Barak, though the larger one on the north may be 
intended as the Irawadi, since on this lies Ava, and above 
it is a legend taken from Conti : "Mains Gauge qui aliter 
daua dicitur": "Rather the Ganges which otherwise is 
called the Dava.^ Though our cosmographer makes cer- 
tain mistakes in relation to the chief stream of India, yet 
his representation of the hydrography of Asia is near the 
truth, and, as stated, is much better than that given by Fra 
Mauro. As the Indus and its delta received special con- 
sideration, so also did the Ganges, the mouth of which is 
marked by the following legend: "Hostia Gangis fluvii 
curus latitudo est XV miliaribus in cuius ripa arundines 
adeo magne ut annum excedant insule et nuces quas Indas 
dicimus procreant" : "The mouth of the Ganges River, the 
width of which is fifteen miles, on whose banks grow canes 
so large that they exceed [the size of] the arm, and the 
islands grow nuts which we call Indian." This legend is 
also taken from Conti with some modification.^ 

1 Conti's record states that ''quitting called hy the inhabitants Dava. Hay- 

this city [Cemove], he traveled ing sailed up this river for the space 

through mountains void of all habi- of a month, he arrived at a city more 

tations for the space of seventeen noble than all the others, called Ava, 

days, and then through open plains and the circumference of which is ftf- 

for fifteen days more, at the end of teen miles." Hk, 8., p. 10. 

which time he arrived at a river s In Conti's account we find: ''After 

larger than the Ganges, which is having made many journeys, both by 

S4 



In the interior of Further India there is a large lake with 
the legend: "Huis lacus sunt auque ad potum a menissime 
et suaves" : "The waters of this lake are very pleasant and 
sweet for drinking." This lake, mentioned in the fabulous 
stories concerning India in the middle ages, is derived from 
Conti.' 

In these rather remarkable sketches we probably have a 
reference to the lakes of Udaipur and Dbar on the south- 
em highlands of Mewar, which lakes in fact lie between 
the Indus and the Ganges.^ As lakes are rare in central 
and northern India, these enjoy a considerable reputation. 
They owe their origin in part to artificial dams, and serve 
the purpose of reserv^oirs for artificial irrigation. They are 
remarkable for their natural surroundings, and for the 
palaces of the rulers of Mewar erected on their banks. This 
statement concerning the lakes as represented on our map 
is supported by the fact that a mountain appears to the 
southwest, from which a river flows to the south, at the 
mouth of which lies Cambay. The river is probably the 
Mahi, and the moimtain the Salamber range. The river 
Ava, as well as the southern parallel tributary of the 
Ganges, anji the two Chinese rivers, the one flowing to the 
southeast and the other to the northeast, come from a moun- 
tain which is further explained by the legend: "In hoc 
monte gignuntur carbimculi": "In this mountain carbun- 



land and sea, he entered the mouth 
of the river Ganges, and sailing up 
it, at the end of fifteen days he came 
to a large and wealthy city called 
Cemove. This river is so large that, 
being in the middle of it, you cannot 
see land on either side. He asserts 
that in some places it is fifteen miles 
in width." Hk, 8,, p. 9. 

1 'There is also a lake lying between 
the Indus and the Ganges," says 



Conti, **the water of which possesses 
a remarkable flavor, and is drunk 
with great pleasure. All the inhabi- 
tants of that district, and even those 
living at a distance, flock to this lake 
for the purpose of procuring the 
water. By means of relays of car- 
riers mounted on horseback, they 
draw water fresh every day." Hk, 8., 
p. 22, 
s Ritter: Asia, Bd. IV, ii, p. 879. 



85 



cles are found." Judging from the rivers which spring 
therefrom, and from this legend, we are led to conclude 
that the mountain-land is eastern Tibet. The representa- 
tions of our cosmographer are here very erroneous, and the 
errors may perhaps be attributed to Conti and Poggio, 
since one is led to conclude by a careful study of the Conti 
narrative that it is not simply the st»ry of a practical mer- 
chant traveler, but a story often adorned by the additions of 
a learned copyist. The Carbimcle Mountains and the art 
of obtaining these valuable stones play an important role 
in the records of all cosmographers of the middle ages.^ 
On the Catalan world map of 1876 appears a legend with 
an interesting pictorial representation.^ A mountain is in- 
dicated with a deep vaUey out of which a bu-d flies, having 
a piece of meat in its beak, and out of the same valley a 
river flows which in its course forms the boundary between 
India and China. These mountains are often represented 



1 Fischer cites here a passage from 
a description of India and the land of 
Prester John to be found in a manu- 
script belonging to the Monastery of 
the Holy Cross in the Wienerwald, 
which is similar to other allusions. 
Marco Polo states that 'Vhen the 
rains are over, and the waters from 
the mountains have ceased to flow, 
they search the beds of the torrents 
and find plenty of diamonds," and he 
also says: '*Now, among these moun- 
tains there are certain great and deep 
valleys, to the bottom of \diich there 
is no access. Wherefore the men who 
go in search of the diamonds take 
with them pieces of flesh as lean as 
they can get, and these they cast into 
the bottom of the valley. Now there 
are numbers of white eagles that 
haunt those mountains and feed upon 
the serpents. When the eagles see the 
meat thrown down, they pounce upon 



it and carry it up to some rocky hill- 
top, where they begin to rend it. But 
there are men on the watch, and as 
soon as they see that the eagles have 
settled, they raise a loud shout to 
drive them away. And ^dien the eagles 
are thus frightened away, the men 
recover the pieces of meat and find 
them full of diamonds which have 
stuck to the meat down in the bot- 
touL For the abundance of diamonds 
down there in the depths of the valley 
is astonishing, but nobody can get 
down; and if one could, it would be 
only to be incontinently devoured by 
the serpents which are so rife there." 
Yule: Marco Polo, VoL II, pp. S60, 
361. 

2 See the reproduction of the map 
in Chow d0 Documents; in Norden- 
skiold: Periplus, Plates XI-XIV; or 
in Cordier: L'Extr^me-Orient dans 
I'atlas Catalan de Charles V, Plate I. 



S6 



on early maps with legends referring to carbuncles or to 
diamonds. From Maharatia, Conti states that he made a 
thirteen days' journey eastward to the Carbimcle Moim- 
tains, that is, to the border mountains of Burma, which our 
map-maker attempts to represent. 

Marco Polo relates a similar story, but adds, as does 
Conti, the simple facts which he himself observed, that is, 
that diamonds are obtained in India through mining and 
through the washing and the sifting of the sands. ^ The 
legend referred to is very old and is known in many 
diflFerent countries. Yule refers to it as one known in the 
fourth century of the Christian era, in which allusion is 
made to the hyacinth or jacinth. It was one known to the 
Byzantines, to the Arabs, and to the Chinese, but it seems 
to owe its origin to India. 

No rivers are represented by our cosmographer in north- 
east Asia, but we find twice inscribed the legend "Montes 
inaccessibiles" : "Inaccessible moimtains." In the extreme 
northwest, in genuine medieval fashion, a leopard and a 
griffin have been sketched. In Tm-kestan is the legend 
"Cambellannas rex magni cannis filius": "King Cambel- 
lannas, son of the great Khan," by which legend is probably 
meant Timur, who reunited the nimierous small kingdoms 
into which, about 1350, Dschagati had fallen. King Cam- 
balech, "Rex Cambalech hoc est magnus cannis," "King 
Cambalech, that is, the Great Khan," is represented in 
picture as ruling Cathay, and the King of India is repre- 
sented on horseback with sword in hand. Northern Asia is 
properly made to appear as a region covered with pine 
forests, a representation which is to be found on no other 
early world map, and which seems to suggest that our map- 

1 Conti's allusion is almost identical with that of Marco Polo. Hk. 8., 
pp. 29, SO. See note, Yule's Marco Polo, Vol. II, p. 362. 

87 



maker was in possession of somewhat detailed information 
concerninff the character of the reirion. In the extreme 
norti» appears the figure of a man c^g himself into the 
sea, whose act is explained in the following legend: "Isto- 
rmn mos est ut senio conf ecti sese in mari per montes abrup- 
tos perimant" : "It is the custom of these people, as old age 
comes on, to cast themselves from the steep precipices into 
the sea." This information seems to be derived from 
Pliny/ Even to-day in northeast Asia, there may be f omid 
a people among whom suicide is conmion, the result of a 
belief that should one depart this life before the feebleness 
of old age comes on, a life of happiness in the hereafter is 
secured. Two legends are here inscribed, the one relating 
to the medieval geographical myth concerning the ten lost 
tribes of Ii^ael, and the other to Antichrist. The one to the 
east of "Montes inaccessibiles," — "Inaccessible moimtains," 
— designated here as "Ymaus mons," reads: "Dehacgente, 
hoc est ex tribu Dan nasceturis est antichristus qui magica 
arte montes istos apperiens ad christocolas subvertendos 
accedet": "From this race, that is, from the tribe of Dan, 
Antichrist is to be bom, who, opening these mountains by 
magic art, will come to overthrow the worshipers of Christ." 
The other reads: "Hie adeo . . . habitant ex Ebreorum 
tribus decem generacione cum dimidia Benjamin, qui 
legis sue effreni degeneres vitam qui ducunt epicur- 



1 "Death comes upon them [Hyper- 
borei] only when satiated with life. 
After a career of feasting, in an old 
age sated with every luxury, they leap 
from a certain rock there into the 
sea; and this they deem the most de- 
sirable mode of ending existence. 
Some writers have placed these peo- 
ple, not in Europe, but at the very 
verge of the shores of Asia, because 
we find there a people called the At- 



tacorL" Pliny, Book IV, Chapter 

XXVI. 

2 Writing to Henry III of England 
in 1241, the Emperor Frederick II 
says of the Tartars: "It is said they 
are descended from the Ten Tribes 
who abandoned the Law of Moses and 
worshiped the Golden Calf. They are 
the people whom Alexander Magnus 
shut up in the Caspian mountain." 
See Yule: Marco Polo, Vol. I, p. 6^, 



38 



riam" : "Here dwell the ten lost tribes of the Hebrew race 
with the half tribe of Benjamin, who, unrestrained by their 
law and being degenerates, pass an epicurean existence." 

On their appearance, the Mongols were thought to be 
the descendants of the ten tribes who had departed from 
the Mosaic law; and even in the Mohammedan world their 
coming was regarded as a sign of the approaching end of 
the world/ In this part of Asia our cosmographer places 
the land of Magog, whence Jews, Mohammedans, and also 
Christians of the middle ages, expected the coming of the 
destructive races at the last day.^ On most of the early 
maps of the middle ages this land of Gog and Magog is 
represented, but with the advance of knowledge of Asia 
the names were given to lands fiu1;her northward. Here 
our cosmographer seems to rely in the main on Arabic 
sources, and especially on Edrisi.^ He places Magog 
north of the mountain-range stretching entirely across 
Asia, Gog south of the same, and on the border range sev- 
eral towers are indicated. The people Gog appear as a 
group of dwarfs covered with a shield, who are attacked 
by two cranes. A legend gives the following explanation : 
"Isti simt ex Gog generacione qui cubitus altitudinem non 
excedunt anni aetatis nonum non actingunt et continue a 



1 "Misery is upon the cities that we 
have ruined; their inhabitants shall 
not return into the world until the 
passage be opened to Gog and Magog, 
and they come running from the emi- 
nent places of the earth; then shall 
the day of judgment approach." 
Koran, Chapter xxi. 

2 In the Cosmography of iEthicus, 
who is believed to have written about 
the fourth century, we find an allu- 
sion to the Turks "of the race of Gog 
and Magog, a polluted nation, eating 
human flesh, and feeding upon all 



abominations, never washing, and 
never using wine, salt nor wheat, who 
shall come forth in the day of Anti- 
christ from where they lie shut up 
behind the Caspian Gates, and make 
horrid devastation." See Yule's Marco 
Polo, Vol. I, p. 56. 

8 OSographie d'^drisi franqais, par 
Jaubert (Reoueil de Voyages et de 
MSmoires, public par la Sod^t^ de 
G^graphie, Vols. V, VI). Sec Vol. 
VI, pp. 349-351, on "Pays Gog et de 
Magog." 



89 



grubius infestantur" : "These are of the generation of Grog, 
who do not exceed the height of a cubit, who do not 
attain the age of nine years, and who are con- 
tinually molested by cranes." Edrisi also represents the 
people Gog as dwarfs, and our cosmographer identifies 
them as the pygmies of Pliny,^ who placed them in the 
mountains of the north of India, exactly as does our cos- 
mographer, in a beautiful valley protected from the cold 
winds, where they are molested only by the attacks of the 
cranes. This identification of Gog with the pygmies of 
classical antiquity is peculiar to this map. The Catalan 
world map places them in about the same region, and repre- 
sents three cranes flying above, on the point of making an 
attack. The towers referred to above are explained in the 
following legend : "Has turres construxit presbyter Johan- 
nes rex ne inclusis hominibus ad eum pateat accessus": 
"King Prester John built these towers in order that those 
shut therein might not have access to him." These towers 
stretch along the crest of the moimtains, as if intended 
to protect the more highly civilized parts of China 
from the wild people of north and central Asia. It seems 
probable that we have here an early reference to the Chinese 
Wall, which appears on no other medieval map. Abulfeda 
and Raschiduddin, his contemporary, refer to the great 
wall as the Wall of Gog and Magog.^ As the builder of 
this wall, our cosmographer in his legend names Prester 

1 "Beyond these people [Scyritse], Homer has mentioned as being waged 

and at the very extremity of the war upon by cranes." Pliny: Natu- 

mowitains, the Trispethami and the ral History, Book VII, Chapter n. 

Pygmies are said to exist: two races 2 Abulfeda says: "Tlie ocean turns 

which are but three spans in height, northward along the east of Qiina, 

that is to say, twenty-seven inches and then extends in the same direction 

only. They enjoy a salubrious atmo- till it passes China and goes opposite 

sphere, and a perpetual spring, being to the rampart of Ydjiij and M^jlij," 

sheltered by the mountains from the and he here refers to the boundary of 

northern blasts; it is these people that China on the north as the land of 

40 



John, who for centuries was regarded as a central Asiatic 
Christian king; and in two places on his map, in central 
Asia and in Abyssinia, reference is made to "Presbyter 
Johannes rex," that is, to a Christian ruler and his king- 
dom. It appears from the investigations of Yule,^ von 
Richthofen and Zarncke,^ that we can attribute the origin 
of the reference to a Christian ruler in the East to Yeliu 
Tashi, the founder of the Karacathian kingdom in Tur- 
kestan in the first half of the twelfth century, who, as con- 
queror of the Seljukian ruler of remote Asia, may have 
appeared to the oppressed Christians of that region as a 
fellow-believer, for they had knowledge that in the interior 
of Asia there were yet Nestorian Christians. It is not im- 
possible that Yeliu Tashi went over to Christianity, since 
in religious matters the Mongolian princes were very lib- 
eral, and it is known that in the West manv of them were 
claimed as Christians. That he was considered to be a 
priest, as is true of many other Oriental rulers (Genghis 
Khan, for example, was called King David) , and received 
the name John, may find its explanation in the peculiar 
relations of the Nestorian Christians in inner Asia, who, in 
their dispersion, were compelled to make such general use 
of priestly consecration that very nearly all of the men 
received it. The first writer of the Occident from whom 
information concerning the central Asiatic Prester John 
may be obtained is Otto von Freising, who lived in the 
twelfth century.^ By reason of the scant knowledge which 



Ydjtij and Mdjtij and other un- (in AhhandUingen der »dchs, Akade- 

known countries. On the distmction mie Phil. Hist, KL, 1879). 

of the Tartars into two races, see s Bishop Otto of Freising, in whose 

Yiile*8 Marco Polo, VoL I, p. 994, and history we have the first allusion 

references. in European literature to a per- 

1 Yule: Marco Polo, VoL I, p. S39. sonage called Prester John, says that 

sZamcke: Der Priester Johannes when at Rome in 1145 he met the 

41 



the West possessed concerning the lands and the peoples 
of the East, this central Asiatic ruler became confounded 
in tradition with a south Asiatic Indian ruler, who in turn, 
as information was obtained concerning the Christians in 
India,— the so-called Thomas Christians,— came to be iden- 
tified as the Christian ruler of Abyssinia, that is, the ruler 
of the third India of the middle ages.^ The legend on this 



Bishop of Gabala from Syria, adding: 
'^We heard him in tears relate the 
peril of the Oiurch beyond the sea 
since the capture of the city Edessa, 
and announce his intention on that 
account to cross the Alps to ask aid 
from the King of the Romans and 
from the King of the Franks. He 
also told us how some years before 
one king and priest, John by name, 
^o dweUs in the far East beyond 
Persia and Armenia, and who is a 
CSiristian, but a Nestorian, waged 
war against the kings of the Per- 
sians and the Medes, ^o are called 
the Samiards, and who have cap- 
tured Ecbatana, concerning which 
we have spoken, the capital of their 
domain. These kings meeting him 
with their forces composed of Per- 
sians, Medes and Assyrians, the bat- 
tle waged for three days, both sides 
preferring death to flight. At last 
Prester John, for so they were accus- 
tomed to call him, having routed the 
Persians, came forth a victor from 
the battle. After this victory, the 
aforesaid John was advancing to fight 
in aid of the Church at Jerusalem. 
When he arrived at the Tigris River 
and found that there w£is no means 
for transporting his army, he turned 
northward, for he had learned that 
the river in that region was frozen in 
winter-time. Halting here for some 
years (?) in expectation of a frost 
which did not come owing to the mild- 
ness of the season, he lost many of his 
people through tiie inhospitable cli- 



mate, and he was obliged to return 
homewards. This individual is said to 
be of the ancient race of the Magi 
mentioned in the Gospel, and to rule 
the same peoples that they did, and 
to have so much glory and wealth 
that he uses only an emerald sceptre. 
It was from the impulse induced by 
the example of his fathers, who came 
to adore the Christ in the cradle, that 
he was proposing to advance to Jeru- 
salem when he was prevented by the 
causes which have been already 
stated." It was shortly after this 
date that a letter fuU of extravagant 
statements was circulated, purport- 
ing to have been addressed by Prester 
John to the Greek emperor Manuel, 
the Roman emperor Frederick, the 
Pope, and other Christian sovereign. 
It was doubtless due to this that the 
idea of a Christian conqueror was 
planted deep in the mind of Europe, 
and twined itself around every rumor 
of revolution in distant Asia. 

1 The term "India" appears to have 
been somewhat vaguely used in the 
later middle ages. We find, for in- 
stance, that the name was applied to 
the region beyond the Ganges, that it 
was applied to the region between 
the Indus and the Ganges, that there 
was an India lying to the west of the 
Ganges, embracing Arabia, Persia 
and Abyssinia, and that the name was 
sometimes applied to a region lying 
\diolly within Africa. Ethiopia. was 
occasionally referred to as the region 
of India. Abulfeda refers to "So- 



42 



map ascribes to Prester John a deed which elsewhere is 
attributed to Alexander the Great: that he had shut up the 
people Gog and Magog with others beyond the high moun- 
tains of the north. 

In the letter of the second half of the twelfth century, 
referred to in note 3, p. 41, attributed to Prester John and 
addressed to the Greek emperor, may be found a statement 
similar to that on our map, which reads: "Istas nempe 
[Gog et Magog] et alias multas generationes Alexander 
puer magnus rex Macedonimi conclusit inter altissimos 
montes in partibus aquilonis": "These [Gog and Magog], 
indeed, and many other races, Alexander, the boy king of 
the Macedonians, confined in the northern part, between 
very high mountains." 

On the Catalan map of 1375 a similar legend appears. 
In 1177 Alexander III addressed a letter to Prester John, 
perhaps the "Indorum rex," which we here find. It is to 
him, as king of that people, that all the fables of the middle 
ages concerning the treasures of India seem to relate. 
Though we possess no very definite information concern- 
ing him, it seems probable that one of the followers of 
Yeliu Tashi is meant. In the thirteenth century Jenghiz 
Khan was occasionally referred to as Prester John, or as 
the son of Prester John, and for centuries there was a 
widely accepted legend which connected this prince with 
the uprisings of the Mongolians, as there was also a legend 
which made him a ruler of India. 

Giovanni dei Marignolli, a famous Italian traveler, who 
visited central, eastern and southern Asia about the middle 
of the foiui^enth centiuy, speaks of an African Prester 

f ala" as likewise a country of India. prising the district from the Indus to 

Conti says: "All India is divided into the Ganges; and the third, all that is 

three parts: one, extending from beyond." Hk. 8,, p. 31. 
Persia to the Indus; the second, com- 

48 



John.^ Soon after the time of MarignoUi, Prester John 
appeared on the Catalan map of 1375 in the Nubian and 
the Abyssinian regions, and from that time on the name 
seems to have been connected with the last-named region, 
though, as our map shows, it did not completely disappear 
from central Asia. There is support for the belief, as ex- 
pressed by Yule, that in the letter of Alexander III, above 
referred to. the ruler of Abyssinia is to be understood, 
although the great majority of the allusions to him seem 
to support the idea that the original Prester John was a 
central Asiatic ruler .^ 

As a characteristic representation of the animal world, 
we find sketched in Further India a snake with a human 
head. The idea that such monsters were to be found here 
appears to have been taken from Conti.^ 



iMarignolli, referring to the four 
sacred streams, notes that Guyon, 
after passing through Ceylon, "en- 
circled the land of Ethiopia, where 
now are negroes, ^diich is called the 
land of Prester John." See Pontes 
rerum Bohemicarum, 1889, Vol. Ill, 
pp. 493-604, for an account of Mari- 
gnolli. Jordanus, a little earlier, refers 
to **the Ethiopian ruler called Prester 
John." See the edition of Mirabilia 
Descripta per Fratrem lordanwm (in 
Becueil de Voyages et de MSmoires, 
publi^e par la Soci^t6 de Geographic, 
Paris, Vol. IV, 1839, pp. 1-64). 

2 Yule observes: "The idea that a 
Christian potentate of enormous 
wealth and power, and bearing this 
title [Prester John], ruled over vast 
tracts in the Far East, was universal 
in Europe from the middle of the 
twelfth to the end of the thirteenth 
century, after which time the Asiatic 
story seems gradually to have died 
away, while the royal Presbyter was 
assigned to a locus in Abyssinia, the 



equivocal application of the term In- 
dia to the east of Asia and the east 
of Africa fcuulitating this transfer. 
Indeed, I have a suspicion, contrary 
to the view now generally taken, that 
the term may from the first have be- 
longed to the Abyssinian princes, 
though circumstances led to its being 
applied to another quarter for a 
time. It seems to me almost certain 
that the letter of Pope Alexander III 
preserved by R. Hoveden and written 
in 1177 to the 'Magnificus rex indorum 
sacerdotum sanctissimus,' was meant 
for the King of Abyssinia." Yule: 
Marco Polo, VoL I, p. 231. 

3 Conti states that **this country 
produces frightful serpents without 
feet, as thick as a man, and six cubits 
in length." Hk, 8., p. 13. Marco 
Polo also refers at some length to the 
"serpents" of this region, though his 
description is doubtless that of the 
crocodile. See Yule: Marco Polo, 
Vol. II, pp. 76-78. 



44 



The geographical nomenclature in the interior of Asia is 
very numerous, including the names of cities, countries and 
topographical features. In Asia Minor we find the names 
"Asia Minor," "Pontus," but more conspicuous the name 
"Turchia." Of the cities which are here most distinguished 
there may be named "Sinope," which is adorned with a 
Genoese banner. East of this, "Simisso," "Patinissa," 
"Chrizonda," "Trapezonda," "Sormene." West of Si- 
nope lies "Castelle," also "Ponteraquia" and "Carpi." On 
the Sea of Marmora is "Palolimen," and "Diascinolo" 
which on English charts is represented as Eskel Bay, a 
semicircular harbor with a very good anchorage twelve 
kilometers east of the mouth of Susurulu Tschai. Farther 
to the west is "Spiga," that is, Karabuga Bay, into which 
the Granicus empties. On the west coast only the name 
"Altoluogo" appears, which name one finds on almost all 
sea charts. This was located near the site of Ephesus and 
was a prosperous city in the fifteenth century. On the 
south coast we find "Atalea" and "Candelor," the ancient 
Alaja and Korakesion. Farther southward, "Antioceta," 
a fortification on the coast often referred to in the fifteenth 
century; also "corocho," the ancient Corycus, northeast of 
the mouth of the Selefke. This is Strabo's Cape Korykos 
with the Koryken Cave, where in Greek, in Roman, in 
Byzantine, and also in Armenian times stood a fortifica- 
tion. Even to-day there is here an old fortification and a 
mass of ruins, which appear on the English maps as 
Korghos Castle. In the time of our cartographer it was in 
the possession of the kingdom of Cyprus, and is accurately 
described by the traveler Josaphat Barbaro, a contem- 
porary. Here we find "Tarsso" and "Layazo," which in 
the middle ages was a harbor of Lesser Armenia, and an 
hnportant terminal on the commercial route to India. 

45 



The geographical nomenclature in the interior of Asia is 
very numerous, including the names of cities, countries and 
topographical features. In Asia Minor we find the names 
"Asia Minor," "Pontus," but more conspicuous the name 
"Turchia." Of the cities which are here most distinguished 
there may be named "Sinope," which is adorned with a 
Genoese banner. East of this, "Simisso," "Patinissa," 
"Chrizonda," "Trapezonda," "Sormene." West of Si- 
nope lies "Castelle," also "Ponteraquia" and "Carpi." On 
the Sea of Marmora is "Palolimen," and "Diascinolo" 
which on English charts is represented as Eskel Bay, a 
semicircular harbor with a very good anchorage twelve 
kilometers east of the mouth of Susurulu Tschai. Farther 
to the west is "Spiga," that is, Karabuga Bay, into which 
the Granicus empties. On the west coast only the name 
"Altoluogo" appears, which name one finds on almost all 
sea charts. This was located near the site of Ephesus and 
was a prosperous city in the fifteenth century. On the 
south coast we find "Atalea" and "Candelor," the ancient 
Alaja and Korakesion. Farther southward, "Antioceta," 
a fortification on the coast often referred to in the fifteenth 
century; also "corocho," the ancient Corycus, northeast of 
the mouth of the Selefke. This is Strabo's Cape Korykos 
with the Koryken Cave, where in Greek, in Roman, in 
Byzantine, and also in Armenian times stood a fortifica- 
tion. Even to-day there is here an old fortification and a 
mass of ruins, which appear on the English maps as 
Korghos Castle. In the time of our cartographer it was in 
the possession of the kingdom of Cyprus, and is accurately 
described by the traveler Josaphat Barbaro, a contem- 
porary. Here we find "Tarsso" and "Layazo," which in 
the middle ages was a harbor of Lesser Armenia, and an 
hnportant terminal on the commercial route to India. 

45 



The cities represented on the frontier of Asia Minor are 
probably "Angora," "Burssa" and "Philadelphia." In 
Armenia appears "Azemm," and to the southeast of this, 
in an mcorrect position, "SauMto." 

In Sjnria the following are found along the coast from 
north to south: "Alexandretta," "Tortosa," "Sur," "Acre," 
"Cesarea," "Arzufo," now in ruins, but in the time of the 
crusades and for a long period thereafter in the possession 
of the Grcnoese, who had conquered it; also "Jaffa" and 
"Ascalon." In the interior, "Jerusalem," "Damascus," 
placed far to the north; "Antioch" and, less accurately 
placed, "Tiberias." Palestine is especially distinguished 
from "Seria" as "Judea sirie." 

In Arabia "Arabia Deserta" is distinguished from "Ara- 
bia Felix," and the extreme southeast part of the peninsula, 
that is, Oman, is called "Fenicea et Sabba," suggesting that 
the Phenicians once occupied the basin of the Persian Gulf. 
Among the cities "Mecha Arabic" appears most con- 
spicuous, and the tower decorated with a flag, and lying on 
the coast, is undoubtedly "Dschidda," Conti's Zidem. The 
large city on the south coast is Aden, at which point Conti 
landed. In Mesopotamia appear the names "babilone," a 
regional name; "Babilo" and "Baldac," or Bagdad; and in 
the Caucasus region are the territorial names "Zichia," by 
which name in the middle ages the region northwest of the 
Caucasus was designated, and "Albania," "Georgia" and 
"Iberia." In the highlands of Iran appear the names "Me- 
dia," "Zilan," "Parthia," "Aria," "Aracosa," "Gedrosia," 
"Cormania" and "Persis." The land to the east of "Aria," 
that is, southern Afghanistan, is represented as a desert. 

Among the cities referred to on the Caspian Sea appears 
a name no longer legible, but which is probably "Axum," 
being at the time of Montecorvino a winter residence of the 
Persian ruler; "Ungro," the best harbor of Gilan; "Zilan 

46 



»» 



and "Cavo Zilan," by which perhaps is meant Sari, which 
in the middle of the fifteenth century was the most impor- 
tant commercial city on the south coast of the Caspian Sea.^ 
In the interior are "Tauria," a center of trade with remote 
Asia and India; and ''Ragis/' the ancient Rhagae, a resi- 
dence of Mohammedan princes, and, since the destruction 
by the MongoUans, a vast ruin, out of which in part the 
neighboring Teheran is built. Of the cities of Parthia only 
the name "Yier" appears, by which perhaps Dschordschan 
is meant. On the Persian Gulf lies "Ragan," by which 
Arragan is probably to be understood, whose ruins are 
found in the vicinity of the present Babahan, with "Fars" 
on the Ab Ergum. This place, incorrectly located on the 
coast, is not referred to by Conti, nor is it to be found on 
any other map. Our cartographer must have had for this 
some special source. The city lying to the east must be 
Ormuz. The city "Calacia," lying in the interior, seems 
more difficult to distinguish, which city is referred to by 
Conti, but is not definitely located.^ There may have been 
a Persian maritime city by this name on the coast of Oman, 
since by reason of favorable winds and gulf currents the 
two coasts of the Persian Gulf stood in such close relations 
that again and again in theu- history Persian rule con- 
trolled the Arabic coast, and Arabic rule the Persian coast. 
In the time of Ibn Batuta the coast of Oman was Persian, 
and was ruled from Ormuz. It was the Portuguese who 
first overthrew the Persian authority.* Calacia, or Cala- 
catia, according to Batuta, is Kalahat, Kalhat, Kilat or 

1 Observe that this is not the Kip- language, of which he afterwards 
chak capitaL made great use, and also adopted the 

2 Conti's record reads: ''Leaving dress of the country, wliich he con- 
this island [Ormus], and turning to- tinned to wear during the whole 
wards India for the space of one hun- period of liis travels." Hk, 8., p. 5. . 
dred miles, he arrived at the City of * Portuguese rule began, in 1514, 
Calacatia, a very noble emporium of with the final conquest of the region 
the Persians. Here having remained by Alfonso d' Albuquerque. 



for some time, he learned the Persian 



47 



Kilhat, in Oman southeast of Muskat, where its ruins may 
yet be seen near a small fishing village of the same name. 
Our cartographer very naturally was inclined to place a 
trading center in Persia. Kalhat, from the time of Edrisi 
to the arrival of the Portuguese, was the most important 
harbor and port of departure from Oman and the entire 
Persian Gulf to India, as was earlier Sohar and later Mus- 
kat. It appears that at the time our map was drawn the 
shipping from the Persian Gulf and from Ormuz followed 
the coast from Oman almost to Ras-el-Hadd, and from 
that point with the monsoons direct to India. 

On the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkestan, there 
are only two cities represented — *'Testango" and "Organ- 
zin." Testango, which Pizigani calls Trestago, is Tysch- 
kandy on the Mertwyi-Kultuk Bay, whence the commer- 
cial highway led from the Caspian Sea over the Ust-Urt 
plateau to Organzin, the ancient capital city Chowares- 
miens on the Darjalyk. Organzin is erroneously placed on 
the Caspian Sea. Destroyed first by Gtenghis Khan in 
1221, and again by Timur, this great Asiatic frontier com- 
mercial city in the time of Conti was in ruins. The new 
city, Urgendsch, lies far to the east of the ancient city. 

Conti, as before stated, divided India into three parts, 
but our cartographer, following the ancients, refers to two 
only, representing therein numerous cities and legends, 
most of which apparently he has taken from Conti. One 
of these legends, referring to India as a land whence ginger 
is obtained, reads: "Hie colligitur zenzero copiose": "Here 
much ginger is gathered" ;^ the other, telling us of the prac- 
tice of burning widows, reads : "Hie uxores virorum suo- 
rum exequias ignitas vive comitantur et si que pavide 
renuunt ad id compelluntur" : "Here the wives living 

1 "This province is called Melibaria ger, called by the natives colobi, pep- 
[Malabar], and they collect in it gin- per, brazil wood and cinnamon, which 

48 



mount the funeral pyre of their husbands, but if any refuse 
through fear, they are forced to this."^ 

Of the several regions only Maabar is especially desig- 
nated in a legend reading: "Provincia hec mahabaria dici- 
tur": "This province is called Mahabaria." By this we are 
to understand Coromandel, lying on the east coast, since it 
appears evident the legend refers to Meliapur. Maabar, it 
should be noted, is not to be confounded with Malabar, or 
Melibar of Marco Polo, 

Among the cities, Cambay is especially distinguished, 
which at that time was the most important commercial city 
of India, and which our cartographer calls "combayta," 
making use of the Spanish term instead of the Italian Cam- 
caia or the Latin Combahita. Meliapur is distinguished 
by a Christian church with a cross and the legend, "Hie 
jacet corpus sancti Thome apostoli": "Here lies the body 
of the apostle Saint Thomas."^ There was scarcely a 
Christian traveler from the time of Montecorvino and 
Marco Polo, returning with information concerning the 
so-called Thomas Christians, who had failed to visit Melia- 
pur near Madras, since the place of Saint Thomas's burial 
was a sacred spot not only to Christians but also to Moham- 
medan pilgrims. The tradition that the holy Thomas 
preached Christianity in India, suifered martyrdom, and 
was buried in a mountain had its origin in very early 
times.* Meliapur on our map lies on a strait which sepa- 



ls known there by the name of crassa." 
Hk, 8., p. 17. 

1 There is a somewhat elaborate ac- 
count in Conti's narrative. Hk, 8,, 
p. 34. 

s 'Proceeding onwards, the said 
Nicolo arrived at a maritime city 
which is named Malepur, situated in 
the second gulf beyond the Indus. 
Here the body of Saint Thomas lies 
honorably buried in a very large and 



beautiful church; it is worshiped by 
heretics who are called Nestorians, 
and inhabit this city to the number 
of a thousand." Hk. 8,, p. 7. 

8 In Book III, Chapter xvm, Marco 
Polo discourses on '*the place where 
lieth the body of Saint Thomas the 
Apostle, and of the miracles thereon." 
See Yule's Marco Polo, VoL II, pp. 
353 et seq., including the valuable 
notes relative to Saint Thomas. 



49 



rates Ceylon from the mainland. On the same strait, but 
farther to the southeast, lies a second city, "Caila," near 
which is the legend, "Caila ubi pro paipro folliis arborum 
utuntur" : '^Caila, where they use the leaves of trees instead 
of papyrus." Caila is Conti's Cahila on the Gulf of Ma- 
naar,^ Marco Polo's Cail,^ and Ptolemy's Colchi. Ac- 
cording to Conti, we should look for Cahila at the southern 
point of India, between Meliapur and Ceylon. Ramusio 
places Cael on his map in the vicinity of Cape Comorin, 
while our cartographer places it to the east of Meliapur 
instead of to the west. Originally it was situated on or near 
the sea-coast, but through the delta formation it became an 
inland city and lost its significance, to which fact the wide- 
spread ruins in the neighborhood of the poverty-stricken 
village Kayal to-day bear witness. Here one finds great 
heaps of Chinese porcelains, but the inhabitants have lost 
all recollections of commercial relations with China; only 
those with Persia and Arabia seem to live in their memory. 
For centuries, even into the sixteenth, Caila was the central 
point of commerce between China, Further India, and the 
archipelago of the east and the trade centers of the Medi- 
terranean. In the account of his voyage Vasco da Gama 
gives information concerning the city and kingdom of 
Cael.^ The tree whose leaves, it is stated, are used for 
paper is not the paper-mulberry tree, but the fan-palm.* 
The fanlike leaves, about two hundred English square 

1 "Beyond this city (Malepur) there ten days. The king can assemble four 
is another which is called Cahila, thousand fighting men, and owns one 
Miiere pearls are found." Hk. 8., p. 7. hundred war elephants. There are 

2 Yule's Marco Polo, Vol. II, pp. many pearls." See A Journal of the 
370 et seq., including Marco Polo's First Voyage of Vasco da Oama, 
chapter "concerning the city Cail" and edited by Ravenstein, p. 98. (Hakluyt 
the notes. Society Publications, 1897.) 

8 "Gael, the king of which is a « Referring to Cahila, Conti says: 

Moor, whilst the people are Christian. "Here also there grows a tree which 
The distance from Calicut by sea is does not bear fruit, but the leaf of 

50 



feet in size, the Singhalese are said to use in the place of 
paper. The ancient "Pusk olay'* manuscripts in the Bud- 
dhist monasteries were all written with an iron stylus on 
such paper, that is, on the leaves of the talipot palm, pre- 
pared by cooking and drying. 

West of the Ganges delta, on a mountain, lies the large 
city "Bizungalia," which Conti called Bizenegalia, and 
which seems to have remained a city of importance weU 
into the sixteenth century.^ To its importance perhaps the 
legend "Major de mundo" refers. The "Amona Civitas" 
of our cartographer seems to lie in about the position of 
Conti's Cernove, reax^hed by him in a fifteen days' journey 
from the mouth of the river.^ Conti gives a vivid descrip- 
tion of this part of the Ganges River, up which river, as he 
states, he sailed for the space of three months ; and from his 
description one might conclude that he had passed entirely 
through Hindustan, and that after he had made the desired 
conmiercial observations he turned about to make a long 
sojourn in Maharatia, perhaps one of the four important 
cities to which he refers.^ 

The land north of the Ava River (Irawadi) as far as a 



which is six cubits in length and al- 
most as many broad, and so thin that 
when pressed together it can be held 
in the closed hand. The leaves are 
used in this country for writing upon 
instead of paper, and in rainy weather 
are carried on the head as a covering 
to keep off the wet. Three or four 
persons traveling together can be cov- 
ered by one of these leaves stretching 
out." Hk, 8., p. 7. 

1 "Departing hence [from Paca- 
muria] and traveling about three hun- 
dred miles inland, he arrived at the 
great city of Bizenegalia, situated near 
very steep mountains. The circum- 
ference of the city is sixty miles: its 



walls are carried up to the mountains 
and enclose valleys at their foot, so 
that its extent is thereby increased. 
In this city there are estimated to be 
ninety thousand men fit to bear arms.** 
Hk. 8., pp. 6, 7, 98. 

2 See note, p. 34. 

« "Having departed hence [from 
Cernove], he sailed up the river Gan- 
ges for the space of three months, 
leaving behind him four very famous 
cities, and landed at an extremely 
powerful city called Maarada, ^ere 
there is a great abimdance of aloe 
wood, gold, silver, precious stones and 
pearls." Hk, 8,, p. 10. 



51 



great parallel mountain-range, including apparently the 
entire Irawadi region, oiur cosmographer calls "Madna," 
inscribing the legend: "Hec provincia Macina dicta ele- 
phantos gignit, hugus incole serpentibus vescuntur deliciose 
affatin et facies suas variis punctis et coloribus stiloque 
ferreo depingunt et sola uxore sunt content!" : "This prov- 
ince of Macina produces elephants. Its inhabitants subsist 
on serpents, regarding them as great delicacies. They 
tattoo their faces with various punctures and colors and 
with an iron stylus. They are contented with one wife." 
The name Machin seems clearly to be a modification of the 
Sanskrit Maha Chin, that is, Great China, a name which 
the Persian and the Arabic writers still frequently use for 
Manzi, the southern part of China. ^ Including in part 
Indo-China, the name Machin may also include Furtiher 
India, for which there is support in certain fifteenth-cen- 
tury references, as there are people of Further India 
among whom the custom of tattooing prevails ; this being 
particularly true of the Laos and the Bmmese.^ Our car- 
tographer clearly considers Burma a part of Machin, which 
since the thirteenth century has belonged to China. Conti^s 
name Macinus can hardly be thought of as Mangi, which 
is suggested by Fischer, who follows Ramusio, but more 
probably refers to Siam.^ Though the geography of India 
as here laid down presents difficulties, there are difficulties 
which are equally great along the east coast. The eastern 

1 Manzi is a name which was ap- eration of people" in ^Sumoltra" 

plied to southern China, or a part of (Sumatra), ''for they brand them- 

the same, at the time of the Mongol selves on the face with a little hot iron 

conquest of Cathay, or northern in some twelve places, and this is done 

China. The name was used by Marco by men and women both." Yule: 

Polo, Odoric and Marignolli. By Per- Cathay, Vol. I, p. 86. 
sian writers it was commonly called 3 See note 1, p. 53, for further proof 

Maudlin. that Conti here is describing Siam. 



2 Odoric refers to "a singular gen- 



62 



.^ 



^ 



border of Asia, toward the south, is represented as Cathay, 
and that toward the north as Sine. This last name, as 
before stated, was not employed at all in the middle ages, 
and may be considered a survival from Ptolemy. Cathay 
is made to include the entire peninsula of Further India. 
Near the picture of the Grand Khan enthroned, and his 
capital city with its f oiu* square towers, is the legend, ap- 
parently taken from Conti: "Huic regioni que catayum 
vel eorum lingua cambalec dicitur dominatur magnus 
canis" : "The Great Khan rules this region, which is called 
Cathay, or, in their language, Cambalec." 

Cathay^ was the European name for northern China, 
while to the southern region, which was reached by water, 
the name China was given.^ It does not appear from his 
travels that Conti reached China, and what he has to say 
may rest in part on rumors which came to him and in part 
on the accounts of Marco Polo. The title Klian had long 
since been given up by the Mongolian dynasty. 



1 Conti says: ''Beyond this province 
of Macinus is one which is superior 
to all others in the world and is 
named Cathay. The lord of this 
countiy is called the Great Khan, 
which, in the language of the inhabi- 
tants, means Emperor." Hk. 8., p. 14. 

«"For about three centuries the 
northern provinces of China had been 
detached from native rule and subject 
to foreign d}masties: first to the Khi- 
tan, a people from the basin of the 
Sungari River, and supposed [but 
doubtfully] to have been akin to the 
Tunguses, whose rule subsisted for 
two hundred years and originated the 



name of Khatai, Khata, or Cathay, by 
which for nearly one thousand years 
China has been known to the nations of 
inner Asia and to those whose acquain- 
tance with it was got by that channeL** 
Yule further suggests that 'the pair 
of names, Khiti and Machin, or 
Cathay and China, is analogous to the 
other pair. Seres and Sinae. Seres 
was the name of a great nation in the 
far East as known by land. Sinae 
was known by sea, and they were 
often supposed to be diverse, just as 
Cathay and China were afterwards." 
Yule: Marco Polo, Introduction, p. 11. 



58 



AFRICA 

TURNING to the continent of Africa, we find its 
Mediterranean coast, as on the portolan charts, 
well represented; likewise the Atlantic coast as 
far as Cape Bojador, which had recently been reached by 
the Portuguese. Om* cartographer appears to have known 
the trend of the coast even to Cape Verde, although his rep- 
resentation of the coast southward of Cape Bojador is far 
from correct in its details.^ The southern coast of Africa 
is made to extend in a flattened curve toward the east, which 
representation is similar to that on the world maps of Sa- 
nuto, of Leardo, and of Fra Mauro. The southern con- 
tinental boimdary of the Indian Ocean appearing on 
Ptolemy's world maps, reduced to a long and narrow pen- 
insula by Sanuto and Fra Mauro, is still further reduced 
by our cartographer. 

On the west coast, in about the position where one should 
look for the Gulf of Guinea, a gulf having one large and 
two small islands extends into the mainland, as is repre- 
sented by Sanuto, Leardo and Fra Mauro. These last- 
named cartographers call this gulf "Sinus Aethiopicus," 
while our cartographer, the name being repeated many 
times, designates the mainland as "Ethiopia," and his 

1 See the Chronicle of the Discov- cellent original source for the story of 

ery and Conquest of Guinea, written Prince Henry the Navigator's discov- 

by Gomes Eanis de Azurara, trans- eries along the coast of Africa to the 

lated by Charles Raymond Beazley year 1448. Major: Prince Henry the 

and Edgar Prestage, 9 vols. (Hk, 8oc. Navigator, the best account in £ng- 

Publications, 1896). This is an ex- Ush of Prince Henry's work. 

54 



legend here reads: "Preter tolemei tradicionem hie est 
guffus sed pomponius eiim tradit cum eius insula" : "Con- 
trary to the tradition of Ptolemy, this is a gulf, but Pom- 
ponius speaks of it with its islands," 

In about the latitude of this gulf on the west coast we 
also find one indicated on the east coast which appears to 
be the Bay of Zanzibar, Before this bay, that is, in the 
open waters of the Indian Ocean, is represented a fish with 
a swine's head. A legend here reads: "Hie porcus dictus 
marinus sicut terrestris in luto rostro proprio colligit 
escas": "This animal, called the sea hog, gathers its food 
with its snout like the land hog."^ The Canary, the Ma- 
deira and the Azores Islands ar^ well represented. Leg- 
ends are here inscribed on either side of a broad scroll, 
wherein the author refers to his work and gives the 
date of its composition, which legends are almost illegible. 
One of them seems to read: "Hoc mare dicitur oceanus qui 
a cosmographis infinitus descriptus undique terram praeter 
eius partem fere[?] quartem[?] hie configuratam cooperit. 
Quod mare a vi lunari commotus diebus singulis lunaribus 
circa terram fluit et refluit ut ait Albertus in naturalibus" : 
"This sea is called the ocean which, according to cosmog- 
raphers, stretches out infinitely in every direction, covering 
the earth except about a fom-th part here laid down. This 
sea, disturbed by the force of the moon, ebbs and flows 
around the earth every lunar day, as Albertus says in his 
Natural History." It appears from this that Albertus 
Magnus was one of our cartographer's authorities. The 
other legend for which Professor Fischer failed to get an 
intelligible reading asserts that : "Ultra banc equinoctialem 

1 ^The most numerous and largest the animals, with a description, none, 

of all these animals are those found in however, exactly corresponding to the 

the Indian Seas." Pliny, Book IX, one here represented. 
Chapter n. Following this is a list of 

55 



lineam tradit ptolemeus terrain incognitam sed pomponius 
atque plures tolentes dubium an sit possibilis nautarum 
transitus ab hoc loco ad indos narrant multos per has partes 
ab India in ispanias et . . . transisse percipue pomponius 
capitulo ultimo": "Beyond this equinoctial line Ptolemy 
records an unknown land, but Pomponius, and in addition 
many others, raising a doubt whether a voyage is possible 
from this place to India [the Indians] , say that many have 
passed through these parts from India to the Spains, 
and . . . especiaUy Pomponius in his last chapter." 

Professor Fischer observes that from this legend one may 
conclude that in Italy, and perhaps yet more in Portugal, 
there was considerable interest in the question of a sea route 
to India. ^ 



1 The question as to whether the 
Portuguese, under Prince Henry the 
Navigator, made search for a water- 
way to India is one concerning which 
much has been written. That such 
search was made may be called the 
popular view of the purpose of Portu- 
guese West African exploration in the 
prince's day, the belief being enter- 
tained that the India sought was the 
India of the far East. This view is 
certainly not well supported by such 
knowledge as we now possess, it being 
rather the result of reading into the 
scanty written records of that early 
day the story of the plans and pur- 
poses of a later day. 

Mr. Vignaud, in his Toscanelli and 
Columbus, (Chapter m, and in his His- 
toire critique de la Orande Entreprise 
de Christophe Colomb, VoL I, Chapter 
IV, presents conclusive arguments 
that the goal of Portuguese endeavor 
before 1474 was not the India of the 
far East, but, if India at all, it was 
the India of Africa, that is, Abyssinia, 
which at that time was so generally 
held to be the land of Prester John. 



Azurara, in his Chronicles, Chapter 
XVI, referring to the return of Antam 
Gon^alves and his plans for yet greater 
achievement, states that 'the Infante 
answered all this and said that he was 
obliged by his offer, and that he not 
only desired to have knowledge of 
that land, but also of the Indies and 
of the land of Prester John if he 
could." Beazley, in his Davm of Mod- 
em Geography, Vol. Ill, p. 418, states 
that '4t was with an almost constant 
hope of coming upon Prester John 
and the true believers of his Empire 
that the Lusitanians skirted West 
Africa." One is unquestionably nearer 
the truth, as the map records of the 
period indicate, in asserting that the 
prime object of Portuguese enter- 
prise on the west coast of Africa was 
to explore new regions, to plant trad- 
ing-posts, to extend commercial inter- 
ests, and to spread the Qiristian faith, 
A desire to find a waterway to the 
Indies of the East was the ultimate 
and altogether logical outcome of long 
years of West African exploration. It 
was not the original purpose. 



56 



In the representation of mountains of Africa we find the 
Atlas range, which stretches along the north coast eastward 
to the Great Syrtus, a second range west of Egypt, stretch- 
ing in a southerly direction. In the extreme south of the 
continent the "Mountains of the Moon" are represented 
as snow-covered, with the following explanatory legend: 
"Isti sunt montes lune qui lingua egiptiaca dicuntur gebel- 
can a quibus nilus fluvius oritur atque estatis tempore dis- 
solutis in apso nivibus maior affluit": "These are the 
Moimtains of the Moon, which, in the Egyptian language, 
are called G^ebelcan, in which mountains the river Nile 
rises, and from which, in the simimer-time, when the snows 
melt, a very large stream flows." This legend gives us the 
Arabic name for the Mountains of the Moon as "Gebel- 
can," which is doubtless the same as G^bel Camr. The 
name Djibal-alqamar, Moimtains of the Moon, according 
to a conjecture of Kiepert, was derived in Ptolemy's time 
erroneously from Djibal-qomr, Blue Mountains. This 
seems to refer to the snow-peaks of the Kilimanjaro 
and Kenia, as seen from a great distance, which mountains 
send their waters toward the interior of the continent. It 
was doubtless through Arabic merchantmen that the 
Alexandrian geographer derived his information, on a 
visit to the east coast of Africa. Late even in the nine- 
teenth century the Mountains of the Moon appear on our 
maps/ 

The hydrography of Africa is likewise Ptolemaic, espe- 
cially that which pertains to the Nile. The Mountains of 
the Moon are the source out of which its two branches flow. 
The Blue Nile, however, is represented according to most 

1 Ptolemy's theory concerning the geographer until the discovery of 
source of the Nile was more nearly Lakes Victoria and Albert Nyanza. 
correct than was that of any other 

67 



recent information from Abyssinia ; this river, miiting with 
the Atbara, forms one river which flows out of a large lake, 
in which an island is represented. Meroe, however, does 
not, as with Ptolemy, lie on a river island, but on a river 
peninsula. Even the irrigation canals, which lead out 
from the Nile in Nubia and Egypt, are represented by our 
cartographer. On an island in a lake of Abyssinia there 
appears to be a floating house, and near it the legend : "In 
hoc lacu insula est tenis que lucos silvasque ac grande ap- 
pollinis templum sustinet natat et quocumque venti agunt 
appeUitur" : "In this lake there is an island, Tana by name, 
wHch contain f ore^ and groves and a great temple of 
Apollo. This island floats and is driven in whatever direc- 
tion the winds blow." This legend appears to be taken al- 
most verbatim from Pomponius Mela, who says concern- 
ing a certain region in Egypt: "In quodam lacu Chenis 
insula lucos silvasque et Appolinis grande sustinens tem- 
plmn natat et quocumque venti agunt pellitur." 

A monastery, or a city, with numerous towers over which 
a cross is drawn, is located in the lake and bears the name 
Maria of Nazareth. The lake is undoubtedly Tana, 
Strabo's Psebo and Ptolemy's Coloe. It may be noted 
that even to-day the banks of this lake, as well as its islands, 
are the site of numerous churches and monasteries. The 
large island Dek, or the Holy Daga Island, dedicated to 
Saint Stephen, is now inhabited by hermit monks, and to it 
the outside world is not admitted. About the time our 
cartographer produced his map he could weU have re- 
ceived excellent information concerning Abyssinia. In 
1489 Pope Eugenius IV named an apostolic delegate to 
that region, and sent a letter to Prester John, the ruler of 
Abyssinia; and we also learn that an Abyssinian ambas- 
sador appeared at the Council of Florence in the year 1441. 

58 



In support of the statement that our eosmographer was 
well informed concerning Abyssinia may be foimd the 
representation of a war elephant carrying a tower filled 
with armed men. A legend here reads: "Isti belaurum 
castelatorum acie ordinata preliantur": "These people 
fight in a battle-line of castled beasts." 

That the Christian Abyssinians made use of the elephant 
in war during the middle ages, Marco Polo relates, who, 
in his travels, had gathered considerable information con- 
cerning that region of Africa.^ It was the Abyssinian 
Christians whom the cosmographers, at the close of the 
fourteenth century, had to thank for information concern- 
ing their country. 

On the Catalan world map of 1375 a war elephant is also 
represented in Nubia, and the same picture appears again 
in India with the addition of a driver. Marco Polo ascribes 
the use of war elephants to the inhabitants of Zanzibar,^ 
while Masudi expressly states that their land was rich in 
elephants, which, however, were neither tamed, nor were 
they used in any manner.^ There can be no doubt that in 
the lands on the west side of the Red Sea elephants were 
captured by the Ptolemies in great numbers, tamed and 



1 In a reference to the wars of the 
King of Abyssinia, Marco Polo says: 
**He straightway caused the array of 
his horse and foot to be mustered, 
and great numbers of elephants with 
castles to be prepared to accompany 
them." Yule: Marco Polo, VoL II, 
p. 429. Conti, referring to the ele- 
phants of "Madnus" (probably Siam), 
says: "This province . . • abounds in 
elephants. The king keeps ten thou- 
sand of these animals, and uses them 
in his wars. They fix castles on their 
backs, from whidi eight or ten men 
fight with javelins, bows and those 
weapons which we call cross-bows." 



Here follows a description of the 
manner of capturing these elephants, 
which is taken from Pliny, Book VIII, 
Chapter vm. See Hk, 8., pp. 11, 12. 

2 "They have no horses, but fight 
upon elephants and camels. Upon the 
backs of the former they place wooden 
castles, which carry from ten to six- 
teen persons armed with lances, 
swords and stones, so that they flg^t 
to great purpose from their casUes." 
Yule: Mareo Polo, VoL II, p. 423. 

8 Marco Polo must have been incor- 
rectly informed relative to the ele- 
phant in Zanzibar. 



59 



recent information from Abyssinia ; this river, muting with 
the Atbara, forms one river which flows out of a large lake, 
in which an island is represented. Meroe, however, does 
not, as with Ptolemy, lie on a river island, but on a river 
peninsula. Even the irrigation canals, which lead out 
from the Nile in Nubia and Egypt, are represented by our 
cartographer. On an island in a lake of Abyssinia there 
appears to be a floating house, and near it the legend: "In 
hoc lacu insula est tenis que lucos silvasque ac grande ap- 
pollinis templum sustinet natat et quocumque venti agunt 
appeUitur" : "In this lake there is an island. Tana by name, 
which contains forests and groves and a great temple of 
Apollo. This island floats and is driven in whatever direc- 
tion the winds blow." This legend appears to be taken al- 
most verbatim from Pomponius Mela, who says concern- 
ing a certain region in Egypt: "In quodam lacu Chenis 
insula lucos silvasque et Appolinis grande sustinens tem- 
plum natat et quocumque venti agunt pellitur.*' 

A monastery, or a city, with numerous towers over which 
a cross is drawn, is located in the lake and bears the name 
Maria of Nazareth. The lake is undoubtedly Tana, 
Strabo's Psebo and Ptolemy's Coloe. It may be noted 
that even to-day the banks of this lake, as well as its islands, 
are the site of numerous churches and monasteries. The 
large island Dek, or the Holy Daga Island, dedicated to 
Saint Stephen, is now inhabited by hermit monks, and to it 
the outside world is not admitted. About the time our 
cartographer produced his map he could well have re- 
ceived excellent information concerning Abyssinia. In 
1489 Pope Eugenius IV named an apostolic delegate to 
that region, and sent a letter to Prester John, the ruler of 
Abyssinia; and we also learn that an Abyssinian ambas- 
sador appeared at the Council of Florence in the year 1441. 

58 



In support of the statement that our eosmographer was 
well informed concerning Abyssinia may be foimd the 
representation of a war elephant carrying a tower filled 
with armed men. A legend here reads: "Isti belaurum 
castelatorum acie ordinata preliantur": "These people 
fight in a battle-line of castled beasts." 

That the Christian Abyssinians made use of the elephant 
in war during the middle ages, Marco Polo relates, who, 
in his travels, had gathered considerable information con- 
cerning that region of Africa.^ It was the Abyssinian 
Christians whom the cosmographers, at the close of the 
fourteenth century, had to thank for information concern- 
ing their coimtry. 

On the Catalan world map of 1375 a war elephant is also 
represented in Nubia, and the same picture appears again 
in India with the addition of a driver. Marco Polo ascribes 
the use of war elephants to the inhabitants of Zanzibar,^ 
while Masudi expressly states that their land was rich in 
elephants, which, however, were neither tamed, nor were 
they used in any manner.^ There can be no doubt that in 
the lands on the west side of the Red Sea elephants were 
captured by the Ptolemies in great numbers, tamed and 



iln a reference to the wars of the 
King of Abyssinia, Marco Polo says: 
**He straightway caused the array of 
his horse and foot to be mustered, 
and great numbers of elephants with 
castles to be prepared to accompany 
them." Yule: Marco Polo, Vol. II, 
p. 429. Conti, referring to the ele- 
phants of '^Madnus" (probably Siam), 
says: 'This province . . . abounds in 
elephants. The king keeps ten thou- 
sand of these animals, and uses them 
in his wars. They fix castles on their 
backs, from whidi eight or ten men 
fight with Javelins, bows and those 
weapons which we call cross-bows." 



Here follows a description of the 
manner of capturing these elephants, 
which is taken from Pliny, Book VIII, 
Chapter vin. See Hk, 8., pp. 11, 19. 

2 "They have no horses, but fig^t 
upon elephants and camels. Upon the 
backs of the former they place wooden 
castles, which carry from ten to six- 
teen persons armed with lances, 
swords and stones, so that they flg^t 
to great purpose from their castles." 
Yule: Marco Polo, VoL II, p. 423. 

8 Marco Polo must have been incor- 
rectly informed relative to the ele- 
phant in Zanzibar. 



59 



made use of in war, as Ptolemy Euergetes testifies in the 
inscription from Adulis that he employed Troglodytie and 
Ethiopian elephants against those from India. As African 
elephants were captured by the Carthaginians in the Atlas 
region and employed in war, so, at the same time, in ]^ubia 
and northern Abyssinia, they were captured and made use 
of by the PtolenL. Cosmi also .Z», in the sbrth .en- 
tury that the Ethiopians did not at all understand the art 
of taming elephants; that, however, they captured tlie 
young and reared them ;^ and Yule himself asserts that late 
in the middle ages the Nubians tamed elephants, and that 
they gave them to the Mohanunedan rulers of Egypt as a 
part of their tribute.^ 

Not only does there appear to be some confusion relative 
to the representation of the Nile River, but the hydrog- 
raphy of other parts of Africa is very confusing, A river 
empties in the Syrtus west of Masrata, which comes from 
a lake in the neighborhood of Wadam, and which is called 
by Edrisi Pahnenoase, a river five days' journey south of 
the Great Syrtus. It is difficult to determine whether by 
this Wadi Schegea or Wadi lun el Cheil is to be understood. 
In Timis a river is made to empty into the Mediterranean, 
which is probably the Medscherda, with one branch empty- 
ing on the north side of the Gulf of Timis, and with another 
into the Gulf of Hammamet. A similar river, dividing 
into two branches near its source, empties into the sea in 
Algeria east and west of Algiers, and a smaller one east of 
Ceuta. If our cosmographer, in the well known regions, 
represents somewhat arbitrarily his watercourses, we can 
certainly expect to find this in the less known regions. It 

1 See Cosmas Indicopleustes: Christian Topography, tr. by 

J. W. McCrindle, p. 58. 
2 Yule: Marco Polo, Vol II, p. 434. 

60 



appears impossible to identify the rivers emptying on the 
west side of Africa. With some degree of certainty we 
may identify the Wadi Draa, represented as flowing 
through many lakes and emptying south of Cape Bojador. 
Whether the rivers emptying still further southward 
represent the numerous rivers which empty south of Sene- 
gal and Cape Verde, it is not possible to determine. Per- 
haps the author intended the more northern and the larger 
one as the Senegal. The legend, "Hie fons est a media die 
ad mediam noctem buliens, alia diei et noctis parte regit 
et hy montes continue ardentes," applies to the middle of 
the Atlas range. It represents a classical survival, and 
may be f oimd on other maps of the middle ages, as on the 
quadrangular Anglo-Saxon world to be found in a Pris- 
cian Codex of the tenth century, where a mountain is 
represented with the legend, "Hie dicitur esse mons super 
ardens." On the world map of Rainulph Hygden of 1860 
we find, "Garamantes, hie fons de die calescens, nocte fri- 
gescens." These representations, in part taken from Isi- 
dore, owe their origin to Pliny ^ and Herodotus. They 
seem to apply to the oasis Siwa, in which, according to 
recent travelers, the temperature of many springs is said 
by the natives to be lower in the daytime than in the night, 



1 Pliny, in Book II, Chapter cvi, 
which treats of the **Wonder8 of 
fountains and rivers," says that '*in 
this country of the Troglodytae, what 
they call the Fountain of the Sun, 
about noon is fresh and very cold, it 
then gradually grows warm, and at 
midnight becomes hot and saline." 
This statement of Pliny may have 
been taken from Herodotus, who 
states. Book IV, section 181: **The8e 
[the Ammonians], as it chances, have 
also other water of a spring, which in 
the early morning is warm; at the 



middle of the morning cooler; when 
midday comes it is quite cold, and 
then they water their gardens; but as 
the day declines, it abates from its 
coldness until at last, when the sun 
sets, the water is warm; and it con- 
tinues to increase in heat still more 
until it reaches midnight, when it boils 
and throws up bubbles; and when 
midnight passes, it becomes cooler 
gradually till dawn of day. This 
spring is called the Fountain of the 
Sun." 



61 



a deception which may arise from the fact that there is a 
decided diflFerence between the temperature of the atmo- 
sphere in the desert dm*ing the day and that during the 
night. The reference to the perpetually burning mountain 
we may attribute to the passage, referred to by Fomponius 
Mela, taken from the Periplua of Hanno,^ 

The reference to the character of the land in Africa and 
its different products is very full, attention being drawn 
particularly to the animals. In addition to the elephant 
and the crocodile, a camel is represented in the southwest, 
and near it a mythical animal, which may be a dragon or a 
basilisk, and which, according to tradition, inhabited Africa 
in antiquity and in the middle aires. One here recalls the 
description which Edrisi gives of a dragon living on an 
oasis to the east of Sahara, so enormous in size that it was 
often mistaken for a mountain. It had the form of a snake 
in that it crawled on the ground, but had large ears extend- 
ing forward.^ In the Atlas region tiiere are also repre- 
sented a giraffe, a lion and two monkeys. Even to-day, 
in Morocco, as in a region of the Algerian Atlas, monkeys 
are not infrequent, and in the middle ages may have been 
much more numerous. We know from the narrative of the 
Florentine merchant Benedetto Dei, a contemporary of 
our cosmographer, that they were frequently captured in 
Algeria, and were made an object of commerce. Three 



1 See, for an account of the Peri- 
plus of Hanno, with a translation, 
Nordenskiold, Periplus, pp. 111-113. 
Pomponius Mela refers to this Peri- 
plus in Book III, Chapter x. 

2 Edrisi says: ''It is in this oasis 
that one sees the dragon which is not 
found elsewhere. The people of this 
country say that it is of such an enor- 
mous size that one would take it for 
a large hill, and that it can swallow 



a calf, a sheep, and even a man. This 
monster has the form of a serpent in 
that it walks upon its beUy, but it 
has projecting ears, canine teeth, and 
moves slowly. It lives in caves or in 
the sands, and kills and devours any 
one who comes within its reach and 
dares to attack it." Description de 
VAfrique et de VEspagne, trad, par 
R. Dozy et M. F, de Ooeje, Leyde 
1866, p. 50. 



62 



human figures have been introduced to represent the po- 
litical and ethnographical situation, one a turbaned 
Mohammedan ruler of Egypt, with the inscription "Do- 
minus" ; the other a crowned head with black hair, carrying 
a banner, on which is a cross with the inscription, "Pres- 
byter Johannes Rex," denoting the Christian ruler of 
Abyssinia. A third figure, unmistakably a negro, in the 
southwest, holds a ball (?) in his hand, and is described in 
the following legend: "Isti simt qui vitus habent degeneres 
inter eos nullum nomen est proprium et orientem, occiden- 
tem solem, dira imprecatione tuentur": "These are the 
people who live degenerate lives, among whom there is no 
distinguishing name, who behold the rising and the setting 
sun with direful imprecations."* 

The extreme southeastern part of Africa has the follow- 
ing legend: "In hac regione depinxerunt quidem para- 
disimi deliciarum. Alii vero ultra Indias ad orientem 
eum esse dixerunt. Sed quoniam hec est cosmographorum 
descriptio qui nuUam de eo f ecerunt mentionem, ideo omit- 
itur hie de eo narratio": "In this region certain ones have 
depicted the paradise of delights. Others, indeed, have 
said that it is beyond the Indies to the east. But since that 
is a representation of cosmographers who have given no 
description of it, therefore an account of it is here omitted." 
Professor Fischer thinks this is to be understood as sig- 
nifying that our cosmographer based his information on 
pre-Christian authors, that is, Pliny and Ptolemy, while 
omitting his own view concerning the position of the 

1 Pliny says: 'The Atlantes, if we sun, they give utterance to direful !m- 

believe what is said, have lost all char- precations against it as being deadly 

acteristics of humanity, for there is to themselves and their lands." Book 

no mode of distinguishing each other V, Chapter vm. Herodotus, Book IV, 

among them by name, and as they pp. 183-185, is probably Pliny's source 

look upon the rising and the setting of information. 

68 



earthly paradise. Medieval cosmographers place this now 
in east Africa, now in east Asia, but more frequently in 
the latter. On the world map of the Majorcan Soler of 
1885 there appears on the Upper Nile the legend, "Iste 
fluvius descendit de paradiso terrestri," and on the Pizigani 
world map the river coming from the Tana Sea, the Blue 
Nile, is designated as Gion, "quod est de paradiso terres- 
tri." Andrea Bianco, Leardo and others place it in the 
extreme east of Asia.^ 

The regional names of the map, for the most part, are 
taken from antiquity. For instance, the name "Ethiopia" 
appears six times, and in addition, in western Europe, 
"Ethiopia interior," and in the east, "Ethiopia Egypti." 
"Ethiopia" also embraces the entire southern section. Ad- 
joining this is the Nile land, "Egyptus"; further west, 
"Nubia"; and to the west of Nubia is the entire Sahara 
region, designated as "Libia." The "Regio arenosa," that 
is, the desert region of Igidi, is especially distinguished. 
The north coast of Africa embraces Mauretania, to which 
"Regnum fesse" and, in part, "Regnum Trenecen" belong. 
Adjoining this are "Regmmi Tunisi," "Barbaria" and 
"Cirenaica." The more important place-names are dis- 
tinguished through towers and castles. On the Mediter- 
ranean, from east to west, we find "Larissa," "Alexandria," 
"Senara" (in the Medicean atlas, Zunara, and Visconti also 
gives Zimara). On the portolan charts there is always 
represented a large bay in the southeast comer of the Great 
Syrtus, which must have been an important harbor. This 

1 See the interesting treatment of is to be found in the hearf of Africa 

the question as to the location of the in the Munich-Portuguese map of 

earthly paradise in Kretschmer: Die about 1504. See Stevenson: If apt lU 

physische Erdkunde im christlichen lustrating Early Diseavsry and Ex- 

Mittelalter, p. ISO. An elaborate ploration, No. 9. 
representation of this earthly paradise 

64 



may be identified as the present Marsah of the English sea 
charts, which is still a comparatively good shelter-harbor. 
It owes its origin as a harbor to a high, rocky headland, 
perhaps formerly an island, which extends from the south- 
west to the northeast and continues in a long chain of rocks. 
From the northeast stretches a low sand-spit forming a bay 
which is not well protected from the north wind, but which 
offers for ships of seven or eight meters draft safe anchor- 
age. The water in a spring here is brackish and sulphur- 
ous. The bay occasionally serves ships which take on 
sulphur from the mines lying to the south, hence the entire 
Syrtus is called by the Arabs "Sulphur Gulf." On the 
peninsula are the ruins of a castle, and other ruins, which 
belong to a place formerly very large, and which, by the 
special importance which it seems to have on portolan 
charts, must have been of considerable significance in the 
middle ages, although we know nothing concerning it. 
That these ruins belong to the middle ages must be con- 
cluded from the fact that the Stadiasmoa, which calls this 
peninsula Cape Kozjnithion, does not speak of a castle or 
other place. 

There follow, farther to the west, "Tripoli barbaria"; 
"Rasamebes," designated as a headland visible from a dis- 
tance, the present Ras Makhabes, with a good bay in its 
protection east of Descherba; "Capis," "Tunes," and an 
unreadable name, perhaps "Biserta"; "Taberca," which, 
on account of its Italian coral-fishery, is famous as the 
island of Tabarca; "Bona," "Bugea"; an unreadable name, 
perhaps "Titelis"; "Alcer," "Tenes," "Oran," "Melila," 
"Septa" (Ceuta). On the ocean side we find only the 
names "Sale," "Saphi," "Gozola" and "Buder" (Boja- 
dor) . In the interior of the Atlas territory the Atlas range 
reaches far to the south. Here we find the following 

65 



names: "Albara" (south of Algiers), perhaps Albulse of 
the ancients, known for its warm baths; "Tremecen," 
"Fessa," "Marroco"; farther south, a city with an unde- 
cipherable name, perhaps "Tarudant*' ; in Libya, that is, in 
the Sahara region, south of Fez, "Patano," "Tueto," "Me- 
cara," "Calata," "Bescara," "Uadan," the last two perhaps 
Biskra and Fez, far from their proper place. Calata is 
probably Edrisi's At Cal, near Msila in the highlands of 
the Schotts, a significant city before the rise of Bougie, the 
capital city of the kingdom of the Hammaditen. Mecara 
may be Edrisi's Maggara in Zab. In Egypt is "Cairo" ; 
in Nubia are "Meroe," "Ati" {?), "Talam" (?), and an 
unreadable name. These places, for the most part, are 
inserted from world maps of other cartographers. 






1